Unofficial Ubuntu 5.04 Starter Guide

Revision: 4.14 (Last updated on 10th July 2005) - Changelog
URL: http://www.ubuntuguide.org
Author: Chua Wen Kiat (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)


Please consider donating to help the support and the improvement of this documentation. Thank you :)

Disclaimer

Copyright (C) 2004-2005 Chua Wen Kiat.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

General Notes

  1. This is an Unofficial Ubuntu 5.04 Starter Guide. It is not associated with Ubuntu and Canonical Ltd.
  2. Guide is tested on a full installation of the Ubuntu 5.04 x86 Install CD (Hoary Hedgehog)
  3. If you see black box, means you have to execute the commands in Terminal mode (Applications -> System Tools -> Terminal)
  4. To reduce typo mistakes, copy and paste the commands into Terminal mode (right click on the commands -> "Copy" or "Paste")
  5. "sudo" means superuser do. "sudo" will prompt for "Password:". Please specify user password
  6. If you are tired of typing "sudo" all the time, switch to root user by issuing "sudo -s -H" followed by user password
  7. If you are tired of typing "apt-get" all the time, Read How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)?
  8. "apt-get" and "wget" requires Internet connection to install/update/download programs
  9. To download file, right click on the link -> Select "Save Link As..." -> Make sure file name and extension are correct
  10. Some multimedia applications may not load/produce sound, Read How to configure sound to work properly in GNOME?
  11. For any feedbacks, suggestions, discussions and bugs report to the author, please post comments: Here
  12. May the "humanity to others" spirit be with you always...


Topics


Getting Started

  1. What is Ubuntu?
  2. Where to view Ubuntu screenshots?
  3. Where to find a list of all the programs/libraries that comes with Ubuntu?
  4. Where to download Ubuntu?
  5. Where to order Ubuntu CDs for absolutely FREE?
  6. Where to find help for Ubuntu?

Getting UbuntuGuide

  1. How to download this entire UbuntuGuide?

Repositories

  1. How to add extra repositories?
  2. How to backup/restore downloaded repositories cache?

Ubuntu Updates

  1. How to manually update Ubuntu?

Add-On Applications

  1. How to install Menu Editor for GNOME?
  2. How to install Clipboard Daemon for GNOME?
  3. How to install J2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox?
  4. How to install Flash Player (Macromedia Flash) Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox?
  5. How to install PDF Reader (Adobe Reader) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox?
  6. How to install Download Manager (Downloader for X)?
  7. How to install FTP Client (gFTP)?
  8. How to install P2P BitTorrent Client (Azureus)?
  9. How to install P2P eMule Client (aMule)?
  10. How to install P2P Gnutella Client (LimeWire)?
  11. How to install Messenger (Skype)?
  12. How to install WinPopup (LinPopUp)?
  13. How to install Multimedia Codecs?
  14. How to install DVD playback capability?
  15. How to install Multimedia Player (xine-ui)?
  16. How to install Multimedia Player (MPlayer) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox?
  17. How to install Multimedia Player (XMMS)?
  18. How to install Multimedia Player (RealPlayer)?
  19. How to install Stream Directory Browser (streamtuner)?
  20. How to install ID3 Tag Editor (EasyTAG)?
  21. How to install Video Editor (Kino)?
  22. How to install Audio Editor (Audacity)?
  23. How to install DVD Ripper (dvd::rip)?
  24. How to install CD Ripper (Goobox)?
  25. How to install Email Client (Mozilla Thunderbird)?
  26. How to install Newsreader (Pan)?
  27. How to install RSS/RDF/Atom Newsreader (RSSOwl)?
  28. How to install Web Authoring System (Nvu)?
  29. How to install Project Management Application (Planner)?
  30. How to install Accounting Application (GnuCash)?
  31. How to install Desktop Publishing Application (Scribus)?
  32. How to install Diagram Editor (Dia)?
  33. How to install CD/DVD Burning Application (GnomeBaker)?
  34. How to install Dialup PPP Client (GNOME PPP)?
  35. How to install Broadband ADSL/PPPoE Client (RP-PPPoE)?
  36. How to install Boot-Up Manager (BUM)?
  37. How to install Partition Editor (GParted)?
  38. How to install Firewall (Firestarter)?
  39. How to install Vulnerability Scanner (Nessus)?
  40. How to install RAR Archiver (rar)?
  41. How to install Extra Fonts?
  42. How to install Chinese Input Method (SCIM)?
  43. How to install Desktop Applets (gDesklets)?
  44. How to install Game (Frozen-Bubble)?
  45. How to install Basic Compilers (build-essential)?

Commercial Applications

  1. How to install Windows 9X/ME/2000/XP (Win4Lin)?
  2. How to install Windows Applications (CrossOver Office)?
  3. How to install Windows Games (Cedega)?

Users Administration

  1. How to set/change/enable root user password?
  2. How to disable root user account?
  3. How to allow root user to login into GNOME?
  4. How to switch to root user in Terminal mode?
  5. How to add/edit/delete system users?
  6. How to add/edit/delete system groups?
  7. How to automatic login into GNOME (not secure)?
  8. How to allow more sudoers?
  9. How to use "sudo" without prompt for password (not secure)?
  10. How to explicitly destroy the "sudo" session?
  11. How to change files/folders permissions?
  12. How to change files/folders ownership?
  13. How to change files/folders group ownership?

Hardware

  1. How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)?
  2. How to disable NVIDIA graphics logo on GNOME startup?
  3. How to identify Modem chipset?
  4. How to install Modem Driver (SmartLink)?
  5. How to configure PalmOS Devices?
  6. How to list partition tables?
  7. How to list filesystem disk space usage?
  8. How to list mounted devices?
  9. How to list PCI devices?
  10. How to list USB devices?
  11. How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM?
  12. How to mount/unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually, and show all hidden and associated files/folders?
  13. How to forcefully unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually?
  14. How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting?

CD/DVD Burning

  1. How to blank CD-RW/DVD-RW?
  2. How to burn files/folders into CD/DVD?
  3. How to burn Image (ISO) files into CD/DVD?
  4. How to duplicate CD/DVD?
  5. How to create Image (ISO) files from CD/DVD?
  6. How to create Image (ISO) files from folders?
  7. How to generate MD5 checksum files?
  8. How to check MD5 checksum of files?
  9. How to mount/unmount Image (ISO) files without burning?
  10. How to set/change the burn speed for CD/DVD Burner?
  11. How to enable burnproof for CD/DVD Burner?
  12. How to enable overburn for CD/DVD? Burner?

Networking

  1. How to activate/deactivate network connections?
  2. How to configure network connections?
  3. How to configure dialup connections?
  4. How to configure broadband connections?
  5. How to change computer name?
  6. How to change computer descriptions?
  7. How to change computer Domain/Workgroup?
  8. How to assign Hostname to local machine with dynamic IP using free DynDNS service?
  9. How to share folders the easy way?
  10. How to browse network computers?
  11. How to access network folders without mounting?
  12. How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read?
  13. How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read/write?
  14. How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read?
  15. How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write?

Remote Desktop

  1. How to configure remote desktop (not secure)?
  2. How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop?
  3. How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop via Windows machine?

Windows

  1. How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (NTFS) manually, and allow all users to read only?
  2. How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (FAT) manually, and allow all users to read/write?
  3. How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow all users to read only?
  4. How to mount Windows partitions (FAT) on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write?

Security

  1. What are the basic things I need to know about securing my Ubuntu?
  2. How to disable all interactive editing control for GRUB menu?
  3. How to disable history listing in Console mode?
  4. How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Del from restarting computer in Console mode?
  5. How to enable prompt before removal/overwritten of files/folders in Console mode?

Rescue Mode

  1. How to gain root user access without login?
  2. How to modify kernel boot-up arguments, to gain root user access?
  3. How to use Ubuntu Installation CD, to gain root user access?
  4. How to change root user/main user password if forgotten?
  5. How to change GRUB menu password if forgotten?
  6. How to restore GRUB menu after Windows installation?
  7. How to add Windows entry into GRUB menu?
  8. How to read Linux partitions (ext2, ext3) in Windows machine?

Tips & Tricks

  1. How to turn on Num Lock on GNOME startup?
  2. How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?
  3. How to run programs on startup when login into GNOME?
  4. How to switch to Console mode in GNOME?
  5. How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Backspace from restarting X in GNOME?
  6. How to enable Ctrl+Alt+Del to open System Monitor in GNOME?
  7. How to refresh GNOME desktop?
  8. How to refresh GNOME panel?
  9. How to open each folder in the same window in Nautilus?
  10. How to show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus?
  11. How to browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus?
  12. How to show Desktop Icons (Computer, Home, Trash)?
  13. How to change default file type "Open with" program?
  14. How to change preferred email client to Mozilla Thunderbird?
  15. How to open files as root user via right click?
  16. How to disable beep sound in Terminal mode?
  17. How to load Web site faster in Mozilla Firefox?
  18. How to disable beep sound for link find function in Mozilla Firefox?
  19. How to restore the original icons for Mozilla Firefox?
  20. How to restore the original icons for Mozilla Thunderbird?
  21. How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)?
  22. How to install/uninstall .deb files?
  23. How to convert .rpm files to .deb files?
  24. How to rename all files in directory at once?
  25. How to manipulate all image files in directory at once?
  26. How to set System-wide Environment Variables?
  27. How to save "man" outputs into files?
  28. How to hide GRUB menu on boot-up?
  29. How to change the timeout seconds for GRUB menu on boot-up?
  30. How to change default Operating System boot-up for GRUB menu?
  31. How to display Splash Image for GRUB menu on boot-up?
  32. How to convert Wallpaper to Splash Image for GRUB menu?
  33. How to temporary skip boot-up services?
  34. How to permanently disable/enable boot-up services?
  35. How to clean /tmp/ folder contents on shutdown?

AntiVirus Server

  1. How to install ClamAV AntiVirus Server?
  2. How to manually update virus databases?
  3. How to manually scan files/folders for viruses?
  4. How to automatically scan files/folders for viruses?

Samba Server

  1. How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  2. How to add/edit/delete network users?
  3. How to share home folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)?
  4. How to share home folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)?
  5. How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)?
  6. How to share group folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)?
  7. How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)?
  8. How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)?
  9. How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=No)?
  10. How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=No)?

SSH Server

  1. How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?
  2. How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine?
  3. How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (scp)?
  4. How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (scp)?
  5. How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (rsync)?
  6. How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (rsync)?
  7. How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine?
  8. How to copy files/folders from/into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine?

DHCP Server

  1. How to install DHCP Server for automatic IP addresses assignment?

Database Server

  1. How to install MYSQL Database Server?
  2. How to install MYSQL Control Center?

Apache HTTP Server

  1. How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?
  2. How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server?
  3. How to install MYSQL for Apache HTTP Server?
  4. How to map URLs to folders outside /var/www/?
  5. How to change the default port number for Apache HTTP Server?
  6. How to parse RSS into PHP for Apache HTTP Server?

FTP Server

  1. How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service?
  2. How to configure FTP user to be "jailed" (chrooted) into their home directory?
  3. How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read only?
  4. How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read/write?
  5. How to map anonymous FTP user to folders outside /home/ftp/?
  6. How to change the default port number for FTP Server?
  7. How to ftp into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine?

Streaming Media Server

  1. How to install GNUMP3d for Streaming Media Server service?
  2. How to change the default directory containing multimedia files for GNUMP3d?
  3. How to change the default port number for GNUMP3d?

Image Gallery Server

  1. How to install Gallery for Image Gallery Server service?
  2. How to configure Gallery to be accessible via Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP)?
  3. How to configure Gallery to be accessible via LAN (dynamic IP)?
  4. How to backup/restore Gallery data?

Troubleshooting

  1. Configuring network interfaces... (taking too long to load)
  2. Synchronizing clock to ntp.ubuntulinux.org... (taking too long to load)
  3. How to disable system time/date from being reset to UTC (GMT)?
  4. How to configure sound to work properly in GNOME?
  5. How to forcefully empty Trash in GNOME?
  6. How to remove duplicate menu/menu items in GNOME?
  7. How to refresh Places menu in GNOME (if mounts to /media/ in /etc/fstab does not show up)?

Upgrading Ubuntu

  1. How to upgrade from Hoary Hedgehog to Breezy Badger (experimental)?


Getting Started


Q: What is Ubuntu?

  1. http://www.ubuntulinux.org/ubuntu

Q: Where to view Ubuntu screenshots?

  1. http://shots.osdir.com/slideshows/slideshow.php?release=305&slide=1

Q: Where to find a list of all the programs/libraries that comes with Ubuntu?

  1. Result of dpkg -l: Here
  2. http://packages.ubuntu.com/hoary
  3. http://distrowatch.com/table.php?distribution=ubuntu

Q: Where to download Ubuntu?

  1. http://www.ubuntulinux.org/download

Q: Where to order Ubuntu CDs for absolutely FREE?

  1. http://shipit.ubuntulinux.org

Q: Where to find help for Ubuntu?

  1. Mailing Lists
  2. Web Forums
  3. IRC Channel


Getting UbuntuGuide


Q: How to download this entire UbuntuGuide?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. wget -c http://ubuntuguide.org/ubuntu5.04.tar.gz
    tar zxvf ubuntu5.04.tar.gz


Repositories


Q: How to add extra repositories?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  3. Find this section
    ...
    ## Uncomment the following two lines to fetch updated software from the network
    # deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary main restricted
    # deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary main restricted
    
    ## Uncomment the following two lines to fetch major bug fix updates produced
    ## after the final release of the distribution.
    # deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-updates main restricted
    # deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-updates main restricted
    
    ## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'universe'
    ## repository.
    ## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
    ## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
    ## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
    ## universe WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu security
    ## team.
    # deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary universe
    # deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary universe
    
    # deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-security main restricted
    # deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-security main restricted
    
    # deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-security universe
    # deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-security universe
  4. Replace with the following lines
    ## Uncomment the following two lines to fetch updated software from the network
    deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary main restricted
    deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary main restricted
    
    ## Uncomment the following two lines to fetch major bug fix updates produced
    ## after the final release of the distribution.
    deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-updates main restricted
    deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-updates main restricted
    
    ## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'universe'
    ## repository.
    ## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
    ## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
    ## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
    ## universe WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu security
    ## team.
    deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary universe
    deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary universe
    
    deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-security main restricted
    deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-security main restricted
    
    deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-security universe
    deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-security universe
    
    deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary multiverse
    deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary multiverse
    
    ## Backports
    deb http://ubuntu-backports.mirrormax.net/ hoary-backports main universe multiverse restricted
    deb http://ubuntu-backports.mirrormax.net/ hoary-extras main universe multiverse restricted
  5. Save the edited file (sample)
  6. sudo apt-get update

Q: How to backup/restore downloaded repositories cache?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. To backup downloaded repositories cache
    sudo tar zcvf apt.tgz /etc/apt/ /var/lib/apt/ /var/cache/apt/
  3. To restore downloaded repositories cache
    sudo tar zxvf apt.tgz -C /


Ubuntu Updates


Q: How to manually update Ubuntu?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get upgrade


Add-On Applications


Q: How to install Menu Editor for GNOME?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install smeg
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> System Tools -> Smeg Menu Editor

Q: How to install Clipboard Daemon for GNOME?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/gnome-clipboard-daemon-1.0.bin.tar.bz2
    sudo tar jxvf gnome-clipboard-daemon-1.0.bin.tar.bz2 -C /usr/bin/
    sudo chown root:root /usr/bin/gnome-clipboard-daemon
    sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/gnome-clipboard-daemon
    sudo gnome-clipboard-daemon &
  3. System -> Preferences -> Sessions
  4. Sessions
    Startup Programs Tab -> Add
    
    Startup Command: gnome-clipboard-daemon
    Order: 80

Q: How to install J2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install sun-j2re1.5
    java -version
  4. Restart Mozilla Firefox

Q: How to install Flash Player (Macromedia Flash) Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install flashplayer-mozilla
  4. Restart Mozilla Firefox

Q: How to install PDF Reader (Adobe Reader) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install acroread
    sudo apt-get install mozilla-acroread
    sudo apt-get install acroread-plugins
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Office -> Adobe Reader
  6. Restart Mozilla Firefox

Q: How to install Download Manager (Downloader for X)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install d4x
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Internet -> Downloader for X

Q: How to install FTP Client (gFTP)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install gftp
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Internet -> gFTP

Q: How to install P2P BitTorrent Client (Azureus)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install J2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox?
  3. sudo apt-get install azureus
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Internet -> Azureus

Q: How to install P2P eMule Client (aMule)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install amule
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Internet -> aMule

Q: How to install P2P Gnutella Client (LimeWire)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install J2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox?
  3. wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/LimeWireSoftOther.zip
    sudo unzip -u LimeWireSoftOther.zip -d /opt/
    sudo chown -R root:root /opt/LimeWire/
    sudo gedit /usr/bin/runLime.sh
  4. Insert the following lines into the new file
    cd /opt/LimeWire/
    ./runLime.sh
  5. Save the edited file (sample)
  6. sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/runLime.sh
    sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/LimeWire.desktop
  7. Insert the following lines into the new file
    [Desktop Entry]
    Name=LimeWire
    Comment=LimeWire
    Exec=runLime.sh
    Icon=/opt/LimeWire/LimeWire.ico
    Terminal=false
    Type=Application
    Categories=Application;Network;
  8. Save the edited file (sample)
  9. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  10. Applications -> Internet -> LimeWire

Q: How to install Messenger (Skype)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install libqt3c102-mt
    wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/skype_1.1.0.20-1_i386.deb
    sudo dpkg -i skype_1.1.0.20-1_i386.deb
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Internet -> Skype

Q: How to install WinPopup (LinPopUp)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  4. sudo apt-get install linpopup
    sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/linpopup.desktop
  5. Insert the following lines into the new file
    [Desktop Entry]
    Name=LinPopUp
    Comment=LinPopUp
    Exec=linpopup
    Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/linpopup.xpm
    Terminal=false
    Type=Application
    Categories=Application;Utility;
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  8. Applications -> Accessories -> LinPopUp

Q: How to install Multimedia Codecs?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.8-plugins
    sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.8-lame
    sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.8-ffmpeg
    sudo apt-get install w32codecs
    sudo apt-get install libdivx4linux
    sudo apt-get install lame
    sudo apt-get install sox
    sudo apt-get install ffmpeg
    sudo apt-get install mjpegtools
    sudo apt-get install vorbis-tools
    gst-register-0.8

Q: How to install DVD playback capability?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install libdvdcss2

Q: How to install Multimedia Player (xine-ui)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. Read How to install Multimedia Codecs?
  4. Read How to install DVD playback capability?
  5. sudo apt-get install xine-ui
  6. Associate xine-ui to play multimedia files
    gconftool-2 --type string --set /desktop/gnome/volume_manager/autoplay_dvd_command "xine dvd://"
    sudo rm -f /usr/share/applnk/Multimedia/xine.desktop
    sudo ln -fs /usr/share/xine/desktop/xine.desktop /usr/share/applications/
    sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup
    sudo sed -e 's/totem.desktop/xine.desktop/g' /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup > /tmp/defaults.list
    sudo mv /tmp/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list
  7. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  8. Read How to refresh GNOME desktop?
  9. Applications -> Sound & Video -> xine

Q: How to install Multimedia Player (MPlayer) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. Read How to install Multimedia Codecs?
  4. Read How to install DVD playback capability?
  5. sudo apt-get install mplayer-386
    sudo apt-get install mplayer-fonts
    sudo apt-get install mozilla-mplayer
    sudo cp /etc/mplayer/mplayer.conf /etc/mplayer/mplayer.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/mplayer/mplayer.conf
  6. Find this line
    ...
    vo=x11,                  # To specify default video driver (see -vo help for
    ...
  7. Replace with the following line
    vo=xv,                  # To specify default video driver (see -vo help for
  8. Save the edited file (sample)
  9. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  10. Applications -> Sound & Video -> MPlayer
  11. Restart Mozilla Firefox

Q: How to install Multimedia Player (XMMS)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. Read How to install Multimedia Codecs?
  4. sudo apt-get install xmms
    wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
    sudo dpkg -i xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
  5. Associate XMMS to play MP3/M3U/WAV files
    sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup
    sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /tmp/defaults.list_tmp
    sudo sed -e 's/audio\/mpeg=.*/audio\/mpeg=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.list_tmp > /tmp/defaults.mp3
    sudo sed -e 's/audio\/x-mpegurl=.*/audio\/x-mpegurl=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.mp3 > /tmp/defaults.m3u
    sudo sed -e 's/audio\/x-wav=.*/audio\/x-wav=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.m3u > /tmp/defaults.list
    sudo mv /tmp/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list
    sudo rm -f /tmp/defaults.*
  6. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  7. Read How to refresh GNOME desktop?
  8. Applications -> Sound & Video -> XMMS

Q: How to install Multimedia Player (RealPlayer)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install realplayer
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Sound & Video -> RealPlayer 10

Q: How to install Stream Directory Browser (streamtuner)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install streamtuner
    sudo apt-get install streamripper
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Sound & Video -> streamtuner

Q: How to install ID3 Tag Editor (EasyTAG)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install easytag
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Sound & Video -> EasyTAG

Q: How to install Video Editor (Kino)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. Read How to install Multimedia Codecs?
  4. sudo apt-get install kino
    sudo apt-get install kinoplus
    sudo apt-get install kino-timfx
    sudo apt-get install kino-dvtitler
  5. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  6. Applications -> Sound & Video -> Kino Video Editor

Q: How to install Audio Editor (Audacity)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. Read How to install Multimedia Codecs?
  4. sudo apt-get install audacity
  5. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  6. Applications -> Sound & Video -> Audacity

Q: How to install DVD Ripper (dvd::rip)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. Read How to install Multimedia Codecs?
  4. Read How to install DVD playback capability?
  5. Read How to install Multimedia Player (MPlayer) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox?
  6. Read How to install RAR Archiver (rar)?
  7. sudo apt-get install dvdrip
    sudo apt-get install vcdimager
    sudo apt-get install cdrdao
    sudo apt-get install subtitleripper
    sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/rar-2.80
    sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/dvdrip.desktop
  8. Insert the following lines into the new file
    [Desktop Entry]
    Name=dvd::rip
    Comment=dvd::rip
    Exec=dvdrip
    Icon=/usr/share/perl5/Video/DVDRip/icon.xpm
    Terminal=false
    Type=Application
    Categories=Application;AudioVideo;
  9. Save the edited file (sample)
  10. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  11. Applications -> Sound & Video -> dvd::rip

Q: How to install CD Ripper (Goobox)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. Read How to install Multimedia Codecs?
  4. sudo apt-get install goobox
    sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
    sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
  5. Insert the following lines into the new file
    [Desktop Entry]
    Name=CD Player & Ripper
    Comment=Play and extract CDs
    Exec=goobox
    Icon=goobox.png
    Terminal=false
    Type=Application
    Categories=Application;AudioVideo;
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  8. Applications -> Sound & Video -> CD Player & Ripper

Q: How to install Email Client (Mozilla Thunderbird)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install mozilla-thunderbird
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Internet -> Thunderbird Mail Client

Q: How to install Newsreader (Pan)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install pan
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Internet -> Pan Newsreader

Q: How to install RSS/RDF/Atom Newsreader (RSSOwl)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install J2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox?
  3. wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/rssowl_linux_1_1_2_bin.tar.gz
    sudo tar zxvf rssowl_linux_1_1_2_bin.tar.gz -C /opt/
    sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_2_bin/
    sudo gedit /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
  4. Insert the following lines into the new file
    export MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME=/usr/lib/mozilla-firefox
    export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:${MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME}:${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}
    cd /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_2_bin/
    ./run.sh
  5. Save the edited file (sample)
  6. sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
    sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RSSOwl.desktop
  7. Insert the following lines into the new file
    [Desktop Entry]
    Name=RSSOwl
    Comment=RSSOwl
    Exec=runRSSOwl.sh
    Icon=/opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_2_bin/rssowl.xpm
    Terminal=false
    Type=Application
    Categories=Application;Network;
  8. Save the edited file (sample)
  9. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  10. Applications -> Internet -> RSSOwl

Q: How to install Web Authoring System (Nvu)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install nvu
    sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/nvu.desktop
    sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/nvu.desktop
  4. Insert the following lines into the new file
    [Desktop Entry]
    Name=Nvu
    Comment=Web Development Editor
    Exec=nvu
    Icon=nvu.xpm
    Terminal=false
    Type=Application
    Categories=Application;Network;
  5. Save the edited file (sample)
  6. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  7. Applications -> Internet -> Nvu

Q: How to install Project Management Application (Planner)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install planner
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Office -> Project Management

Q: How to install Accounting Application (GnuCash)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install gnucash
    sudo rm -fr /usr/share/gnome/apps/Applications/
    sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/GnuCash.desktop
  4. Insert the following lines into the new file
    [Desktop Entry]
    Name=GnuCash
    Comment=GnuCash Personal Finance
    Exec=gnucash
    Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/gnucash/gnucash-icon.png
    Terminal=false
    Type=Application
    Categories=Application;Office;
  5. Save the edited file (sample)
  6. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  7. Applications -> Office -> GnuCash

Q: How to install Desktop Publishing Application (Scribus)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install scribus
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Office -> Scribus

Q: How to install Diagram Editor (Dia)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install dia-gnome
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Graphics -> Dia

Q: How to install CD/DVD Burning Application (GnomeBaker)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install gnomebaker
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Accessories -> GnomeBaker CD/DVD Creator

Q: How to install Dialup PPP Client (GNOME PPP)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install gnome-ppp
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Internet -> GNOME PPP

Q: How to install Broadband ADSL/PPPoE Client (RP-PPPoE)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Basic Compilers (build-essential)?
  3. wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/rp-pppoe-3.5.tar.gz
    sudo tar zxvf rp-pppoe-3.5.tar.gz -C /opt/
    sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rp-pppoe-3.5/
    sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RP-PPPoE.desktop
  4. Insert the following lines into the new file
    [Desktop Entry]
    Name=RP-PPPoE
    Comment=RP-PPPoE
    Exec=gksudo /opt/rp-pppoe-3.5/go-gui
    Icon=
    Terminal=false
    Type=Application
    Categories=Application;Network;
  5. Save the edited file (sample)
  6. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  7. Applications -> Internet -> RP-PPPoE

Q: How to install Boot-Up Manager (BUM)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/bum_1.3.0-1_all.deb
    sudo dpkg -i bum_1.3.0-1_all.deb
  3. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  4. System -> Administration -> Boot-Up Manager

Q: How to install Partition Editor (GParted)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install gparted
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> System Tools -> GParted

Q: How to install Firewall (Firestarter)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install firestarter
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> System Tools -> Firestarter

Q: How to install Vulnerability Scanner (Nessus)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install nessus
    sudo apt-get install nessusd
    sudo nessus-adduser
    sudo ln -fs /etc/init.d/nessusd /etc/rc2.d/S20nessusd
    sudo /etc/init.d/nessusd start
    sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nessus.desktop
  4. Insert the following lines into the new file
    [Desktop Entry]
    Name=Nessus
    Comment=Nessus
    Exec=nessus
    Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/nessus.xpm
    Terminal=false
    Type=Application
    Categories=Application;System;
  5. Save the edited file (sample)
  6. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  7. Applications -> System Tools -> Nessus

Q: How to install RAR Archiver (rar)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install rar
    sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/unrar
  4. Applications -> Accessories -> Archive Manager

Q: How to install Extra Fonts?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-arabic
    sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-asian
    sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese
    sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese-big
    sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-european
    sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese
    sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese-big
    sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-phonetic
    sudo apt-get install gsfonts-x11
    sudo apt-get install msttcorefonts
    sudo fc-cache -f -v
    sudo cp /etc/fonts/local.conf /etc/fonts/local.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/fonts/local.conf
  4. Find this section
    ...
    <!-- Uncomment below to enable the freetype autohinter module -->
    <!--
      <match target="font">
        <edit name="autohint" mode="assign">
          <bool>true</bool>
        </edit>
      </match>
    -->
    ...
  5. Replace with the following lines
      <match target="font">
        <edit name="autohint" mode="assign">
          <bool>true</bool>
        </edit>
      </match>
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. Read How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?

Q: How to install Chinese Input Method (SCIM)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. Read How to install Extra Fonts?
  4. sudo apt-get install scim
    sudo apt-get install scim-chinese
    sudo apt-get install scim-config-socket
    sudo apt-get install scim-gtk2-immodule
    sudo apt-get install scim-tables-zh
    wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/fireflysung-1.3.0.tar.gz
    sudo tar zxvf fireflysung-1.3.0.tar.gz -C /usr/share/fonts/truetype/
    sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/fonts/truetype/fireflysung-1.3.0/ 
    sudo fc-cache -f -v
  5. System -> Preferences -> SCIM Input Method Setup
  6. To activate SCIM
    Press 'Ctrl + Space'

Q: How to install Desktop Applets (gDesklets)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install gdesklets
    sudo apt-get install gdesklets-data
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Accessories -> gDesklets

Q: How to install Game (Frozen-Bubble)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install frozen-bubble
  4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  5. Applications -> Games -> Frozen-Bubble

Q: How to install Basic Compilers (build-essential)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install build-essential


Commercial Applications


Q: How to install Windows 9X/ME/2000/XP (Win4Lin)?

  1. http://www.win4lin.com

Q: How to install Windows Applications (CrossOver Office)?

  1. http://www.codeweavers.com

Q: How to install Windows Games (Cedega)?

  1. http://www.transgaming.com


Users Administration


Q: How to set/change/enable root user password?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo passwd root

Q: How to disable root user account?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo passwd -l root

Q: How to allow root user to login into GNOME?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to set/change/enable root user password?
  3. System -> Administration -> Login Screen Setup
  4. Login Screen Setup
    Security Tab -> Options -> Allow root to login with GDM (Checked)

Q: How to switch to root user in Terminal mode?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo -s -H
    Password: <specify user password>

Q: How to add/edit/delete system users?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. System -> Administration -> Users and Groups
  3. Users and Groups
    Users Tab -> Add User.../Properties/Delete

Q: How to add/edit/delete system groups?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. System -> Administration -> Users and Groups
  3. Users and Groups
    Groups Tab -> Add Group.../Properties/Delete

Q: How to automatic login into GNOME (not secure)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. System -> Administration -> Login Screen Setup
  3. Login Screen Setup
    General Tab -> Automatic Login ->
    Login a user automatically on first bootup (Checked)
    Automatic login username: Select "system_username"

Q: How to allow more sudoers?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. export EDITOR=gedit && sudo visudo
  3. Append the following line at the end of file
    system_username	ALL=(ALL) ALL
  4. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to use "sudo" without prompt for password (not secure)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. export EDITOR=gedit && sudo visudo
  3. Find this line
    ...
    system_username	ALL=(ALL) ALL
    ...
  4. Replace with the following line
    system_username	ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
  5. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to explicitly destroy the "sudo" session?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo -K

Q: How to change files/folders permissions?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Right click on files/folders -> Properties
    
    Permissions Tab -> Read/Write/Execute (Checked the permissions for Owner/Group/Others)

Q: How to change files/folders ownership?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo chown system_username /location_of_files_or_folders

Q: How to change files/folders group ownership?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo chgrp system_groupname /location_of_files_or_folders


Hardware


Q: How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx
    sudo apt-get install nvidia-settings
    sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
    sudo nvidia-glx-config enable
    sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/NVIDIA-Settings.desktop
  4. Insert the following lines into the new file
    [Desktop Entry]
    Name=NVIDIA Settings
    Comment=NVIDIA Settings
    Exec=nvidia-settings
    Icon=
    Terminal=false
    Type=Application
    Categories=Application;System;
  5. Save the edited file (sample)
  6. Read How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?
  7. Applications -> System Tools -> NVIDIA Settings

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)?
  3. sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  4. Find this section
    ...
    Section "Device"
    	Identifier	"NVIDIA Corporation NV11 [GeForce2 MX/MX 400]"
    	Driver		"nvidia"
    	BusID		"PCI:1:0:0"
    ...
  5. Add the following line below it
            Option		"NoLogo"
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. Read How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?

Q: How to identify Modem chipset?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. To install Modem chipset identifier
    1. Read How to install Basic Compilers (build-essential)?
    2. wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/scanModem.gz
      gunzip -c scanModem.gz > scanModem
      chmod +x scanModem
      sudo cp scanModem /usr/bin/
  3. To identify Modem chipset
    sudo scanModem
    gedit Modem/ModemData.txt

Q: How to install Modem Driver (SmartLink)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. uname -r (must be 2.6.10-5-386)
    wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/sl-modem-modules-2.6.10-5-386_2.9.9a-1ubuntu2+2.6.10-34_i386.deb
    sudo dpkg -i sl-modem-modules-*.deb
    sudo apt-get install sl-modem-daemon

Q: How to configure PalmOS Devices?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo gedit /etc/udev/rules.d/10-custom.rules
  3. Insert the following line into the new file
    BUS="usb", SYSFS{product}="Palm Handheld*", KERNEL="ttyUSB*", NAME{ignore_remove}="pilot", MODE="666"
  4. Save the edited file (sample)
  5. System -> Preferences -> PalmOS Devices
  6. Follow the instructions on screen

Q: How to list partition tables?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo fdisk -l

Q: How to list filesystem disk space usage?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. df -T -h

Q: How to list mounted devices?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. mount

Q: How to list PCI devices?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. lspci

Q: How to list USB devices?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. lsusb

Q: How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
  3. sudo hdparm -d1 /dev/cdrom
    sudo cp /etc/hdparm.conf /etc/hdparm.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/hdparm.conf
  4. Append the following lines at the end of file
    /dev/cdrom {
           dma = on
    }
  5. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to mount/unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually, and show all hidden and associated files/folders?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
  3. To mount CD/DVD-ROM
    sudo mount /media/cdrom0/ -o unhide
  4. To unmount CD/DVD-ROM
    sudo umount /media/cdrom0/

Q: How to forcefully unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
  3. sudo umount /media/cdrom0/ -l

Q: How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo mount -a


CD/DVD Burning


Q: How to blank CD-RW/DVD-RW?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
  3. sudo umount /dev/cdrom
    cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast

Q: How to burn files/folders into CD/DVD?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. nautilus burn:///
  3. File Browser: CD/DVD Creator
    Drag files/folders into window
    
    File Menu -> Write to Disc... -> Write

Q: How to burn Image (ISO) files into CD/DVD?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Right click on Image (ISO) file -> Write to Disc... -> Write

Q: How to duplicate CD/DVD?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to create Image (ISO) files from CD/DVD?
  3. Read How to burn Image (ISO) files into CD/DVD?

Q: How to create Image (ISO) files from CD/DVD?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
  3. sudo umount /dev/cdrom
    dd if=/dev/cdrom of=file.iso bs=1024

Q: How to create Image (ISO) files from folders?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. mkisofs -o file.iso /location_of_folder/

Q: How to generate MD5 checksum files?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. md5sum file.iso > file.iso.md5

Q: How to check MD5 checksum of files?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that file.iso and file.iso.md5 are in the same folder
  3. md5sum -c file.iso.md5

Q: How to mount/unmount Image (ISO) files without burning?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. To mount Image (ISO) file
    sudo mkdir /media/iso
    sudo modprobe loop
    sudo mount file.iso /media/iso/ -t iso9660 -o loop
  3. To unmount Image (ISO) file
    sudo umount /media/iso/

Q: How to set/change the burn speed for CD/DVD Burner?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  3. Configuration Editor
    / -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> default_speed (set/change the burn speed)

Q: How to enable burnproof for CD/DVD Burner?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  3. Configuration Editor
    / -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> burnproof (Checked)

Q: How to enable overburn for CD/DVD? Burner?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  3. Configuration Editor
    / -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> overburn (Checked)


Networking


Q: How to activate/deactivate network connections?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. System -> Administration -> Networking
  3. Network settings
    Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Activate/Deactivate

Q: How to configure network connections?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. System -> Administration -> Networking
  3. Network settings
    Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Properties
    Connection -> This device is configured (Checked)
    Connection Settings -> Configuration: Select "DHCP/Static IP address"
    
    DNS Tab -> DNS Servers -> Add/Delete
  4. Read How to activate/deactivate network connections?

Q: How to configure dialup connections?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. To configure dialup
    sudo pppconfig
  3. To connect dialup
    sudo pon provider_name
  4. To disconnect dialup
    sudo poff

Q: How to configure broadband connections?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo pppoeconf

Q: How to change computer name?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. System -> Administration -> Networking
  3. Network settings
    General Tab -> Host Settings -> Hostname: Specify the computer name
  4. Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

Q: How to change computer descriptions?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  3. sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  4. Find this line
    ...
       server string = %h server (Samba, Ubuntu)
    ...
  5. Replace with the following line
       server string = new_computer_descriptions
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. sudo testparm
    sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to change computer Domain/Workgroup?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  3. sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  4. Find this line
    ...
       workgroup = MSHOME
    ...
  5. Replace with the following line
       workgroup = new_domain_or_workgroup
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. sudo testparm
    sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to assign Hostname to local machine with dynamic IP using free DynDNS service?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. e.g. Assumed that internet connections have been configured properly
         Register free Dynamic DNS at https://www.dyndns.org
         Automatically refresh IP in DynDNS Database/DNS every hour
         * * * * * means minute hour date month year
  4. sudo apt-get install ipcheck
    sudo gedit /root/dyndns_update.sh
  5. Insert the following lines into the new file
    USERNAME=myusername
    PASSWORD=mypassword
    HOSTNAME=myhostname.dyndns.org
    
    cd /root/
    if [ -f /root/ipcheck.dat ]; then
      ipcheck -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
    else
      ipcheck --makedat -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
    fi
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. sudo chmod 700 /root/dyndns_update.sh
    sudo sh /root/dyndns_update.sh
    export EDITOR=gedit && sudo crontab -e
  8. Append the following line at the end of file
    00 * * * * sudo sh /root/dyndns_update.sh
  9. Save the edited file

Q: How to share folders the easy way?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  3. Right click on folder -> Share folder
    
    Shared folder -> Share with: Select "SMB"
    Share properties -> Name: Specify the share name

Q: How to browse network computers?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
         If computers or network folders could not be found, try access them directly
         Read How to access network folders without mounting?
  3. Places -> Network Servers

Q: How to access network folders without mounting?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
         Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
         Shared folder's name: linux
  3. Applications -> Run Application...
  4. Run Application
    smb://192.168.0.1/linux

Q: How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  3. e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
         Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
         Network computer's Username: myusername
         Network computer's Password: mypassword
         Shared folder's name: linux
         Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  4. To mount network folder
    sudo mkdir /media/sharename
    sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword
  5. To unmount network folder
    sudo umount /media/sharename/

Q: How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read/write?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  3. e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
         Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
         Network computer's Username: myusername
         Network computer's Password: mypassword
         Shared folder's name: linux
         Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  4. To mount network folder
    sudo mkdir /media/sharename
    sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword,dmask=777,fmask=777
  5. To unmount network folder
    sudo umount /media/sharename/

Q: How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  3. e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
         Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
         Network computer's Username: myusername
         Network computer's Password: mypassword
         Shared folder's name: linux
         Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  4. sudo mkdir /media/sharename
    sudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  5. Insert the following lines into the new file
    username=myusername
    password=mypassword
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
    sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  8. Append the following line at the end of file
    //192.168.0.1/linux        /media/sharename  smbfs    credentials=/root/.smbcredentials       0       0
  9. Save the edited file (sample)
  10. Read How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting?

Q: How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  3. e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
         Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
         Network computer's Username: myusername
         Network computer's Password: mypassword
         Shared folder's name: linux
         Local mount folder: /media/sharename
  4. sudo mkdir /media/sharename
    sudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials
  5. Insert the following lines into the new file
    username=myusername
    password=mypassword
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
    sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  8. Append the following line at the end of file
    //192.168.0.1/linux        /media/sharename  smbfs   credentials=/root/.smbcredentials,dmask=777,fmask=777   0       0
  9. Save the edited file (sample)
  10. Read How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting?


Remote Desktop


Q: How to configure remote desktop (not secure)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Warning! Remote Desktop will only work if there's a GNOME login session
             Leaving computer with an unattended GNOME login session is not secure
             Use (System -> Lock Screen) and off the monitor when computer is left unattended
  3. System -> Preferences -> Remote Desktop
  4. Remote Desktop Preferences
    Sharing ->
    Allow other users to view your desktop (Checked)
    Allow other users to control your desktop (Checked)
    
    Security ->
    Ask you for confirmation (Un-Checked)
    Require the user to enter this password: (Checked)
    Password: Specify the password

Q: How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
         Read How to configure remote desktop (not secure)?
         Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
  3. vncviewer -fullscreen 192.168.0.1:0
  4. To quit vncviewer
    Press 'F8' -> Quit viewer

Q: How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop via Windows machine?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
         Read How to configure remote desktop (not secure)?
         Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
  3. Download VNC Viewer: Here


Windows


Q: How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (NTFS) manually, and allow all users to read only?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to list partition tables?
  3. e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
         Local mount folder: /media/windows
  4. To mount Windows partition
    sudo mkdir /media/windows
    sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t ntfs -o nls=utf8,umask=0222
  5. To unmount Windows partition
    sudo umount /media/windows/

Q: How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (FAT) manually, and allow all users to read/write?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to list partition tables?
  3. e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
         Local mount folder: /media/windows
  4. To mount Windows partition
    sudo mkdir /media/windows
    sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t vfat -o iocharset=utf8,umask=000
  5. To unmount Windows partition
    sudo umount /media/windows/

Q: How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow all users to read only?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to list partition tables?
  3. e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
         Local mount folder: /media/windows
  4. sudo mkdir /media/windows
    sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  5. Append the following line at the end of file
    /dev/hda1       /media/windows  ntfs    nls=utf8,umask=0222 0       0
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. Read How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting?

Q: How to mount Windows partitions (FAT) on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to list partition tables?
  3. e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
         Local mount folder: /media/windows
  4. sudo mkdir /media/windows
    sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/fstab
  5. Append the following line at the end of file
    /dev/hda1       /media/windows  vfat    iocharset=utf8,umask=000   0       0
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. Read How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting?


Security


Q: What are the basic things I need to know about securing my Ubuntu?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Ensure hard drive is first in BIOS boot-up sequence
    1. To prevent trespassers from using Linux Installation CD which allows them to gain root user access
    2. To prevent trespassers from using Linux Live CD (e.g. UBUNTU/KNOPPIX/MEPIS) which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive
    3. To prevent trespassers from installing another Operating System
  3. Ensure a password is set for BIOS
    1. To prevent trespassers from changing the BIOS boot-up sequence
  4. Ensure computer is located at a secured place
    1. To prevent trespassers from removing computer's hard drive which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive from a different computer
    2. To prevent trespassers from removing computer's on-board battery which resets the BIOS password
  5. Ensure passwords used on the system cannot be easily guessed
    1. To prevent trespassers from cracking password file using brute force attacks (e.g. John the Ripper)
    2. Create password with minimum length of 8 characters
    3. Create password with mixture of characters/numbers, and upper/lower case
  6. Ensure interactive editing control for GRUB menu is disabled
    1. To prevent trespassers from modifying kernel boot-up arguments which allows them to have root user access
    2. Read How to disable all interactive editing control for GRUB menu?
  7. Ensure history listing is disabled in Console mode
    1. To prevent trespassers from seeing previously issued commands
    2. Read How to disable history listing in Console mode?
  8. Ensure Ctrl+Alt+Del is disabled in Console mode
    1. To prevent trespassers from restarting the system without permission in Console mode
    2. Read How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Del from restarting computer in Console mode?
  9. Ensure interactive option is set for remove, copy and move of files/folders in Console mode
    1. To prevent accidental removal/overwritten of files/folders
    2. Read How to enable prompt before removal/overwritten of files/folders in Console mode?
  10. For day to day usage, login as a normal user
    1. To prevent accidental deletion/modification of system files/folders
    2. Read How to add/edit/delete system users?
  11. Disable root user account, use "sudo" instead
    1. To reduce the amount of time spent with root privileges, and thus the risk of inadvertently executing a command as root
    2. "sudo" provides a more useful audit trail (/var/log/auth.log)
    3. Read How to disable root user account?
  12. Install a Firewall
    1. A firewall does not guarantee security but it is in most environments the first line of defense against network based attacks
    2. Read How to install Firewall (Firestarter)?
  13. Perform vulnerability test
    1. Nessus is a great tool designed to automate the testing and discovery of known security problems
    2. Read How to install Vulnerability Scanner (Nessus)?

Q: How to disable all interactive editing control for GRUB menu?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. grub
    
    grub> md5crypt
    Password: ****** (ubuntu)
    Encrypted: $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password)
    grub> quit
    
    sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
    sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  3. Find this section
    ...
    ## password ['--md5'] passwd
    # If used in the first section of a menu file, disable all interactive editing
    # control (menu entry editor and command-line)  and entries protected by the
    # command 'lock'
    # e.g. password topsecret
    #      password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
    # password topsecret
    ...
  4. Add the following line below it
    password --md5 $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password above)
  5. Find this section
    ...
    title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
    root		(hd0,1)
    kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro single
    initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-5-386
    savedefault
    boot
    ...
  6. Replace with the following lines
    #title		Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
    #root		(hd0,1)
    #kernel		/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro single
    #initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-5-386
    #savedefault
    #boot
  7. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to disable history listing in Console mode?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. rm -f $HOME/.bash_history
    touch $HOME/.bash_history
    chmod 000 $HOME/.bash_history

Q: How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Del from restarting computer in Console mode?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo cp /etc/inittab /etc/inittab_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/inittab
  3. Find this line
    ...
    ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
    ...
  4. Replace with the following line
    #ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
  5. Save the edited file (sample)
  6. sudo telinit q

Q: How to enable prompt before removal/overwritten of files/folders in Console mode?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/bash.bashrc
  3. Append the following lines at the end of file
    alias rm='rm -i'
    alias cp='cp -i'
    alias mv='mv -i'
  4. Save the edited file (sample)


Rescue Mode


Q: How to gain root user access without login?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Easiest method (will not work if GRUB menu password is set)
    1. Boot-up computer
    2. If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
    3. Select
      Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
    4. Press 'Enter' to boot
  3. Other methods
    1. Read How to modify kernel boot-up arguments, to gain root user access?
    2. Read How to use Ubuntu Installation CD, to gain root user access?

Q: How to modify kernel boot-up arguments, to gain root user access?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Boot-up computer
  3. If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
  4. If GRUB password is set, press 'p' to unlock the GRUB menu
  5. Select
    Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386
  6. Press 'e' to edit the commands before booting
  7. Select
    kernel  /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash
  8. Press 'e' to edit the selected command in the boot sequence
  9. Add "rw init=/bin/bash" to the end of the arguments
    grub edit> kernel  /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash rw init=/bin/bash
  10. Press 'b' to boot

Q: How to use Ubuntu Installation CD, to gain root user access?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Boot-up computer into Ubuntu Installation CD
  3. At "boot:" prompt, add "rescue" to the argument
    boot: rescue
  4. Follow the instructions on screen

Q: How to change root user/main user password if forgotten?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to gain root user access without login?
  3. To change root user password
    # passwd root
  4. To change main user password
    # passwd system_main_username

Q: How to change GRUB menu password if forgotten?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. grub
    
    grub> md5crypt
    Password: ****** (ubuntu)
    Encrypted: $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password)
    grub> quit
    
    sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
    sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  3. Find this line
    ...
    password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
    ...
  4. Replace with the following line
    password --md5 $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password above)
  5. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to restore GRUB menu after Windows installation?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to use Ubuntu Installation CD, to gain root user access?
  3. e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda is the location of /boot partition
  4. # grub-install /dev/hda

Q: How to add Windows entry into GRUB menu?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to list partition tables?
  3. e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition
  4. sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
    sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  5. Append the following lines at the end of file
    title		Microsoft Windows
    root		(hd0,0)
    savedefault
    makeactive
    chainloader	+1
  6. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to read Linux partitions (ext2, ext3) in Windows machine?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Download Explore2fs: Here


Tips & Tricks


Q: How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Save and close all opened applications
  3. Press 'Ctrl + Alt + Backspace'
    or
    sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart

Q: How to turn on Num Lock on GNOME startup?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install numlockx
    sudo cp /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default
  4. Find this line
    ...
    exit 0
  5. Add the following lines above it
    if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then
      /usr/bin/numlockx on
    fi
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. Read How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?

Q: How to run programs on startup when login into GNOME?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. System -> Preferences -> Sessions
  3. Sessions
    Startup Programs Tab -> Add/Edit/Delete

Q: How to switch to Console mode in GNOME?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. To switch to Console mode
    Press 'Ctrl + Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)
  3. To switch back to GNOME mode
    Press 'Ctrl + Alt + F7'

Q: How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Backspace from restarting X in GNOME?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  3. Append the following lines at the end of file
    Section "ServerFlags"
    	Option		"DontZap"		"yes"
    EndSection
  4. Save the edited file (sample)
  5. Read How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?

Q: How to enable Ctrl+Alt+Del to open System Monitor in GNOME?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/global_keybindings/run_command_9 "<Control><Alt>Delete"
    gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/keybinding_commands/command_9 "gnome-system-monitor"

Q: How to refresh GNOME desktop?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. killall nautilus

Q: How to refresh GNOME panel?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. killall gnome-panel

Q: How to open each folder in the same window in Nautilus?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  3. Configuration Editor
    / -> apps -> nautilus -> preferences -> always_use_browser (Checked)

Q: How to show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Places -> Home Folder
  3. To temporary show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus
    Press 'Ctrl + H'
  4. To permanently show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus
    Edit Menu -> Preferences
    
    Views Tab -> Default View -> Show hidden and backup files (Checked)

Q: How to browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. To install File Browser (Root)
    1. sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nautilus-root.desktop
    2. Insert the following lines into the new file
      [Desktop Entry]
      Name=File Browser (Root)
      Comment=Browse the filesystem with the file manager
      Exec=gksudo "nautilus --browser %U"
      Icon=file-manager
      Terminal=false
      Type=Application
      Categories=Application;System;
    3. Save the edited file (sample)
    4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  3. To browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus
    1. Applications -> System Tools -> File Browser (Root)

Q: How to show Desktop Icons (Computer, Home, Trash)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
  3. Configuration Editor
    / -> apps -> nautilus -> desktop ->
    computer_icon_visible (Checked)
    home_icon_visible (Checked)
    trash_icon_visible (Checked)

Q: How to change default file type "Open with" program?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Right click on file -> Properties
    
    Open With Tab -> Add
    Select "Open with" program
    
    Select "Open with" program (Checked)

Q: How to change preferred email client to Mozilla Thunderbird?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Email Client (Mozilla Thunderbird)?
  3. System -> Preferences -> Preferred Applications
  4. Preferred Applications
    Mail Reader Tab -> Default Mail Reader -> Command: mozilla-thunderbird %s

Q: How to open files as root user via right click?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. gedit $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root
  3. Insert the following lines into the new file
    for uri in $NAUTILUS_SCRIPT_SELECTED_URIS; do
    	gnome-sudo "gnome-open $uri" &
    done
  4. Save the edited file (sample)
  5. chmod +x $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root
  6. Right click on file -> Scripts -> Open as root

Q: How to disable beep sound in Terminal mode?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Applications -> System Tools -> Terminal
  3. Terminal
    Edit Menu -> Current Profile...
    
    General Tab -> General -> Terminal bell (Un-Checked)

Q: How to load Web site faster in Mozilla Firefox?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
  3. Mozilla Firefox
    Address Bar -> about:config
    
    Filter: ->
    network.dns.disableIPv6 -> true
    network.http.pipelining -> true
    network.http.pipelining.maxrequests -> 8
    network.http.proxy.pipelining -> true
  4. Restart Mozilla Firefox

Q: How to disable beep sound for link find function in Mozilla Firefox?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
  3. Mozilla Firefox
    Address Bar -> about:config
    
    Filter: -> accessibility.typeaheadfind.enablesound -> false
  4. Restart Mozilla Firefox

Q: How to restore the original icons for Mozilla Firefox?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/mozilla-firefox.png
    wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/document.png
    chmod 644 mozilla-firefox.png
    chmod 644 document.png
    sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-firefox.png
    sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-firefox.xpm
    sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/lib/mozilla-firefox/icons/default.xpm
    sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/lib/mozilla-firefox/icons/document.png
    sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/lib/mozilla-firefox/chrome/icons/default/default.xpm
    sudo cp mozilla-firefox.png /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-firefox.png
    sudo cp mozilla-firefox.png /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-firefox.xpm
    sudo cp mozilla-firefox.png /usr/lib/mozilla-firefox/icons/default.xpm
    sudo cp document.png /usr/lib/mozilla-firefox/icons/document.png
    sudo cp mozilla-firefox.png /usr/lib/mozilla-firefox/chrome/icons/default/default.xpm
  3. Read How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?

Q: How to restore the original icons for Mozilla Thunderbird?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/mozilla-thunderbird.xpm
    chmod 644 mozilla-thunderbird.xpm
    sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-thunderbird.xpm
    sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-thunderbird-menu.xpm
    sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-thunderbird-pm-menu.xpm
    sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/lib/mozilla-thunderbird/chrome/icons/default/mozilla-thunderbird.xpm
    sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/lib/mozilla-thunderbird/chrome/icons/default/messengerWindow16.xpm
    sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/lib/mozilla-thunderbird/chrome/icons/default/messengerWindow.xpm
    sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/lib/mozilla-thunderbird/chrome/icons/default/default.xpm
    sudo cp mozilla-thunderbird.xpm /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-thunderbird.xpm
    sudo cp mozilla-thunderbird.xpm /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-thunderbird-menu.xpm
    sudo cp mozilla-thunderbird.xpm /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-thunderbird-pm-menu.xpm
    sudo cp mozilla-thunderbird.xpm /usr/lib/mozilla-thunderbird/chrome/icons/default/mozilla-thunderbird.xpm
    sudo cp mozilla-thunderbird.xpm /usr/lib/mozilla-thunderbird/chrome/icons/default/messengerWindow16.xpm
    sudo cp mozilla-thunderbird.xpm /usr/lib/mozilla-thunderbird/chrome/icons/default/messengerWindow.xpm
    sudo cp mozilla-thunderbird.xpm /usr/lib/mozilla-thunderbird/chrome/icons/default/default.xpm
  3. Read How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?

Q: How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager
  3. Synaptic Package Manager
    1. To refresh the list of known packages (equivalent to apt-get update)
      Edit Menu -> Reload Package Information
    2. To install all possible upgrades (equivalent to apt-get upgrade)
      Edit Menu -> Mark All Upgrades... -> Default Upgrade
      Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
    3. To search for a package (equivalent to apt-cache search package_name)
      Edit Menu -> Search... Specify the package name
    4. To install the selected package (equivalent to apt-get install package_name)
      Select "package_name"
      
      Package Menu -> Mark for Installation
      Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes
    5. To remove installed package (equivalent to apt-get remove package_name)
      Select "package_name"
      
      Package Menu -> Mark for Removal
      Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes

Q: How to install/uninstall .deb files?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. To install .deb file
    sudo dpkg -i package_file.deb
  3. To uninstall .deb file
    sudo dpkg -r package_name

Q: How to convert .rpm files to .deb files?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo alien package_file.rpm

Q: How to rename all files in directory at once?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. To install "mvb" file name renamer
    wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/mvb_1.6.tgz
    sudo tar zxvf mvb_1.6.tgz -C /usr/share/
    sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/mvb_1.6/
    sudo ln -fs /usr/share/mvb_1.6/mvb /usr/bin/mvb
  3. To rename all files in directory at once
    mvb NEW_NAME

Q: How to manipulate all image files in directory at once?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. To install bash batch image processing script
    1. Read How to add extra repositories?
    2. sudo apt-get install imagemagick
      wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/bbips.0.3.2.sh
      sudo cp bbips.0.3.2.sh /usr/bin/bbips
      sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/bbips
  3. To manipulate all image files in directory at once
    bbips

Q: How to set System-wide Environment Variables?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/bash.bashrc
  3. Append the System-wide Environment Variables at the end of file
  4. Save the edited file

Q: How to save "man" outputs into files?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. man command | col -b > file.txt

Q: How to hide GRUB menu on boot-up?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
    sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  3. Find this line
    ...
    #hiddenmenu
    ...
  4. Replace with the following line
    hiddenmenu
  5. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to change the timeout seconds for GRUB menu on boot-up?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
    sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  3. Find this line
    ...
    timeout         3
    ...
  4. Replace with the following line
    timeout         X_seconds
  5. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to change default Operating System boot-up for GRUB menu?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
    sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  3. Find this line
    ...
    default         0
    ...
  4. Replace with the following line
    default         X_sequence
  5. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to display Splash Image for GRUB menu on boot-up?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that hd0,1 is the location of Ubuntu boot partition
  3. wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/ubuntu.xpm.gz
    chmod 644 ubuntu.xpm.gz
    sudo mkdir /boot/grub/images
    sudo cp ubuntu.xpm.gz /boot/grub/images/
    sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
    sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst
  4. Find this section
    # menu.lst - See: grub(8), info grub, update-grub(8)
    #            grub-install(8), grub-floppy(8),
    #            grub-md5-crypt, /usr/share/doc/grub
    #            and /usr/share/doc/grub-doc/.
    ...
  5. Add the following line below it
    splashimage (hd0,1)/boot/grub/images/ubuntu.xpm.gz
  6. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to convert Wallpaper to Splash Image for GRUB menu?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that wallpaper.png is the Wallpaper to be converted to Splash Image
         splashimage.xpm.gz is the Splash Image for GRUB menu
  3. convert -resize 640x480 -colors 14 wallpaper.png splashimage.xpm && gzip splashimage.xpm
  4. Read How to display Splash Image for GRUB menu on boot-up? (use splashimage.xpm.gz instead of ubuntu.xpm.gz)

Q: How to temporary skip boot-up services?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Press 'Ctrl + C'

Q: How to permanently disable/enable boot-up services?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Boot-Up Manager (BUM)?

Q: How to clean /tmp/ folder contents on shutdown?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo cp /etc/init.d/sysklogd /etc/init.d/sysklogd_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/init.d/sysklogd
  3. Find this section
    ...
      stop)
        log_begin_msg "Stopping system log daemon..."
        start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile
        log_end_msg $?
    ...
  4. Add the following line below it
        rm -fr /tmp/* /tmp/.??*
  5. Save the edited file (sample)


AntiVirus Server


Q: How to install ClamAV AntiVirus Server?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install clamav

Q: How to manually update virus databases?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install ClamAV AntiVirus Server?
  3. sudo freshclam

Q: How to manually scan files/folders for viruses?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install ClamAV AntiVirus Server?
  3. sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders

Q: How to automatically scan files/folders for viruses?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install ClamAV AntiVirus Server?
  3. e.g. Automatically scan files/folders for viruses at midnight everyday
         * * * * * means minute hour date month year
  4. export EDITOR=gedit && sudo crontab -e
  5. Append the following line at the end of file
    00 00 * * * sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders
  6. Save the edited file


Samba Server


Q: How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install samba
    sudo apt-get install smbfs

Q: How to add/edit/delete network users?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  3. To add network user
    1. Read How to add/edit/delete system users?
    2. smbpasswd -a system_username
      sudo gedit /etc/samba/smbusers
    3. Insert the following line into the new file
      system_username = "network username"
    4. Save the edited file (sample)
  4. To edit network user
    sudo smbpasswd -a system_username
  5. To delete network user
    sudo smbpasswd -x system_username

Q: How to share home folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  3. sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  4. Find this line
    ...
    ;   security = user
    ...
  5. Replace with the following lines
       security = user
       username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. Read How to add/edit/delete network users?
  8. sudo testparm
    sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to share home folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  3. sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  4. Find this line
    ...
    ;   security = user
    ...
  5. Replace with the following lines
       security = user
       username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  6. Find this section
    ...
    # By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
    # parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
       writable = no
    ...
  7. Replace with the following lines
    # By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
    # parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
       writable = yes
  8. Save the edited file (sample)
  9. Read How to add/edit/delete network users?
  10. sudo testparm
    sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  3. sudo mkdir /home/group
    sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
    sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  4. Find this line
    ...
    ;   security = user
    ...
  5. Replace with the following lines
       security = user
       username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  6. Append the following lines at the end of file
    [Group]
       comment = Group Folder
       path = /home/group
       public = yes
       writable = no
       valid users = system_username1 system_username2
       create mask = 0700
       directory mask = 0700
       force user = nobody
       force group = nogroup
  7. Save the edited file (sample)
  8. Read How to add/edit/delete network users?
  9. sudo testparm
    sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to share group folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  3. sudo mkdir /home/group
    sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
    sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  4. Find this line
    ...
    ;   security = user
    ...
  5. Replace with the following lines
       security = user
       username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  6. Append the following lines at the end of file
    [Group]
       comment = Group Folder
       path = /home/group
       public = yes
       writable = yes
       valid users = system_username1 system_username2
       create mask = 0700
       directory mask = 0700
       force user = nobody
       force group = nogroup
  7. Save the edited file (sample)
  8. Read How to add/edit/delete network users?
  9. sudo testparm
    sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  3. sudo mkdir /home/public
    sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
    sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  4. Find this line
    ...
    ;   security = user
    ...
  5. Replace with the following lines
       security = user
       username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  6. Append the following lines at the end of file
    [public]
       comment = Public Folder
       path = /home/public
       public = yes
       writable = no
       create mask = 0777
       directory mask = 0777
       force user = nobody
       force group = nogroup
  7. Save the edited file (sample)
  8. Read How to add/edit/delete network users?
  9. sudo testparm
    sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  3. sudo mkdir /home/public
    sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
    sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  4. Find this line
    ...
    ;   security = user
    ...
  5. Replace with the following lines
       security = user
       username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
  6. Append the following lines at the end of file
    [public]
       comment = Public Folder
       path = /home/public
       public = yes
       writable = yes
       create mask = 0777
       directory mask = 0777
       force user = nobody
       force group = nogroup
  7. Save the edited file (sample)
  8. Read How to add/edit/delete network users?
  9. sudo testparm
    sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=No)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  3. sudo mkdir /home/public
    sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
    sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  4. Find this line
    ...
    ;   security = user
    ...
  5. Replace with the following line
       security = share
  6. Append the following lines at the end of file
    [public]
       comment = Public Folder
       path = /home/public
       public = yes
       writable = no
       create mask = 0777
       directory mask = 0777
       force user = nobody
       force group = nogroup
  7. Save the edited file (sample)
  8. sudo testparm
    sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=No)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
  3. sudo mkdir /home/public
    sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
    sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf
  4. Find this line
    ...
    ;   security = user
    ...
  5. Replace with the following line
       security = share
  6. Append the following lines at the end of file
    [public]
       comment = Public Folder
       path = /home/public
       public = yes
       writable = yes
       create mask = 0777
       directory mask = 0777
       force user = nobody
       force group = nogroup
  7. Save the edited file (sample)
  8. sudo testparm
    sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart


SSH Server


Q: How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install ssh

Q: How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
         Read How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?
         Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
  3. ssh username@192.168.0.1

Q: How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (scp)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
         Read How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?
         Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
         Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
         Local machine save location: . (current directory)
  3. scp -r username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

Q: How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (scp)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
         Read How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?
         Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
         Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
         Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
  3. scp -r localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

Q: How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (rsync)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
         Read How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?
         Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
         Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
         Local machine save location: . (current directory)
  3. rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

Q: How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (rsync)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
         Read How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?
         Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
         Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
         Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/
  3. rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

Q: How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
         Read How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?
  3. Download PuTTY: Here

Q: How to copy files/folders from/into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
         Read How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?
  3. Download WinSCP: Here


DHCP Server


Q: How to install DHCP Server for automatic IP addresses assignment?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. e.g. Assumed that "eth0" is the interface for network card
         IP Address Range: 192.168.0.100 to 192.168.0.200
         Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
         DNS Servers: 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5
         Domains: tm.net.my
         Gateway Address: 192.168.0.1
  4. sudo apt-get install dhcp3-server
    sudo cp /etc/default/dhcp3-server /etc/default/dhcp3-server_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/default/dhcp3-server
  5. Find this line
    ...
    INTERFACES=""
  6. Replace with the following line
    INTERFACES="eth0"
  7. Save the edited file (sample)
  8. sudo cp /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf
  9. Find this section
    ...
    # option definitions common to all supported networks...
    option domain-name "example.org";
    option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
    
    default-lease-time 600;
    max-lease-time 7200;
    ...
  10. Replace with the following lines
    # option definitions common to all supported networks...
    #option domain-name "example.org";
    #option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;
    
    #default-lease-time 600;
    #max-lease-time 7200;
  11. Find this section
    ...
    # A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
    #subnet 10.5.5.0 netmask 255.255.255.224 {
    #  range 10.5.5.26 10.5.5.30;
    #  option domain-name-servers ns1.internal.example.org;
    #  option domain-name "internal.example.org";
    #  option routers 10.5.5.1;
    #  option broadcast-address 10.5.5.31;
    #  default-lease-time 600;
    #  max-lease-time 7200;
    #}
    ...
  12. Replace with the following lines
    # A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
    subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
      range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.200;
      option domain-name-servers 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5;
      option domain-name "tm.net.my";
      option routers 192.168.0.1;
      option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
      default-lease-time 600;
      max-lease-time 7200;
    }
  13. Save the edited file (sample)
  14. sudo /etc/init.d/dhcp3-server restart


Database Server


Q: How to install MYSQL Database Server?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install mysql-server
    mysqladmin -u root password db_user_password

Q: How to install MYSQL Control Center?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. Read How to install MYSQL Database Server?
  4. sudo apt-get install mysqlcc
    sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/MySQLCC.desktop
  5. Insert the following lines into the new file
    [Desktop Entry]
    Name=MySQLCC
    Comment=MySQLCC
    Exec=mysqlcc
    Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/mysqlcc.xpm
    Terminal=false
    Type=Application
    Categories=Application;System;
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  8. Applications -> System Tools -> MySQLCC


Apache HTTP Server


Q: How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install apache2
  4. http://localhost

Q: How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. Read How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?
  4. sudo apt-get install php4
    sudo gedit /var/www/testphp.php
  5. Insert the following line into the new file
    <?php phpinfo(); ?>
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. http://localhost/testphp.php

Q: How to install MYSQL for Apache HTTP Server?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. Read How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?
  4. Read How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server?
  5. Read How to install MYSQL Database Server?
  6. sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-auth-mysql
    sudo apt-get install php4-mysql
    sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Q: How to map URLs to folders outside /var/www/?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?
  3. sudo gedit /etc/apache2/conf.d/alias
  4. Insert the following lines into the new file
    Alias /URL-path /location_of_folder/
    
    <Directory /location_of_folder/>
       Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
       AllowOverride All
       Order allow,deny
       Allow from all
    </Directory>
  5. Save the edited file (sample)
  6. sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  7. http://localhost/URL-path

Q: How to change the default port number for Apache HTTP Server?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?
  3. e.g. Assumed that new port number is 78
  4. sudo cp /etc/apache2/ports.conf /etc/apache2/ports.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/apache2/ports.conf
  5. Find this line
    Listen 80
  6. Replace with the following line
    Listen 78
  7. Save the edited file (sample)
  8. sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
  9. http://localhost:78

Q: How to parse RSS into PHP for Apache HTTP Server?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?
  3. Read How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server?
  4. e.g. Assumed that RSS is DistroWatch.com - News
  5. wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz
    sudo mkdir /var/www/feeds
    sudo tar zxvf magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz -C /var/www/feeds/
    sudo mv /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/* /var/www/feeds/
    sudo rm -fr /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/
    sudo chown -R www-data:root /var/www/feeds/
    sudo gedit /var/www/feeds/index.php
  6. Insert the following lines into the new file
    <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
    
    <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">
    
    <head>
    
    <title>DistroWatch.com - News</title>
    
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"/>
    
    <style type="text/css">
    /*<![CDATA[*/
    /* 
    DEFAULT TAG STYLES
    */
    
    body {
      background: #ffffff;
      margin-left: 20px;
      font-family: bitstream vera sans,sans-serif;
      font-size: 9pt;
    }
    
    h1 {
      font-family: luxi sans,sans-serif;
      font-size: 15pt;
    }
    
    /*]]>*/
    </style>
    
    </head>
    
    <body>
    
    <?php
    
    require_once 'rss_fetch.inc';
    error_reporting(E_ERROR);
    
    $url = 'http://distrowatch.com/news/dw.xml';
    $rss = fetch_rss($url);
    
    if ($rss) {
    
      echo "<h1>";
      echo "<a href=$url>", $rss->channel[title], "</a><br/>";
      echo "</h1>";
    
      foreach ($rss->items as $item ) {
        $url = $item[link];
        $title = $item[title];
        $description = $item[description];
        echo "<li>";
        echo "<b>Topic:</b> <a href=$url><b><u>$title</u></b></a><br/><br/>";
        echo "$description<br/><br/>";
        echo "</li>";
      }
    
    }
    else {
      echo "<a href=$url>", $url, "</a> - Server Down!<br/>";
    }
    
    ?>
    
    </body>
    
    </html>
  7. Save the edited file (sample)
  8. http://localhost/feeds/index.php


FTP Server


Q: How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo apt-get install proftpd

Q: How to configure FTP user to be "jailed" (chrooted) into their home directory?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service?
  3. sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  4. Find this section
    ...
    DenyFilter                      \*.*/
    ...
  5. Add the following line below it
    DefaultRoot                     ~
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

Q: How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read only?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service?
  3. sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  4. Append the following lines at the end of file
    <Anonymous ~ftp>
      User                        ftp
      Group                       nogroup
      UserAlias                   anonymous ftp
      DirFakeUser on ftp
      DirFakeGroup on ftp
      RequireValidShell           off
      MaxClients                  10
      DisplayLogin                welcome.msg
      DisplayFirstChdir           .message
      <Directory *>
        <Limit WRITE>
          DenyAll
        </Limit>
      </Directory>
    </Anonymous>
  5. Save the edited file (sample)
  6. sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

Q: How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read/write?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service?
  3. sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  4. Append the following lines at the end of file
    <Anonymous ~ftp>
      User                        ftp
      Group                       nogroup
      UserAlias                   anonymous ftp
      DirFakeUser on ftp
      DirFakeGroup on ftp
      RequireValidShell           off
      MaxClients                  10
      DisplayLogin                welcome.msg
      DisplayFirstChdir           .message
    </Anonymous>
  5. Save the edited file (sample)
  6. sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

Q: How to map anonymous FTP user to folders outside /home/ftp/?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service?
  3. sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  4. Append the following lines at the end of file
    <Anonymous /location_of_folder/>
      User                        ftp
      Group                       nogroup
      UserAlias                   anonymous ftp
      DirFakeUser on ftp
      DirFakeGroup on ftp
      RequireValidShell           off
      MaxClients                  10
      DisplayLogin                welcome.msg
      DisplayFirstChdir           .message
      <Directory *>
        <Limit WRITE>
          DenyAll
        </Limit>
      </Directory>
    </Anonymous>
  5. Save the edited file (sample)
  6. sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

Q: How to change the default port number for FTP Server?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service?
  3. e.g. Assumed that new port number is 77
  4. sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf
  5. Find this line
    Port                            21
  6. Replace with the following line
    Port                            77
  7. Save the edited file (sample)
  8. sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

Q: How to ftp into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed FTP Server service
         Read How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service?
  3. Download FileZilla: Here


Streaming Media Server


Q: How to install GNUMP3d for Streaming Media Server service?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. Read How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?
  4. e.g. /var/music/ is the directory containing multimedia files
  5. sudo apt-get install gnump3d
  6. http://localhost:8888

Q: How to change the default directory containing multimedia files for GNUMP3d?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install GNUMP3d for Streaming Media Server service?
  3. e.g. Assumed that new directory containing multimedia files is /home/music/
  4. sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  5. Find this line
    root = /var/music
  6. Replace with the following line
    root = /home/music
  7. Find this line
    user = gnump3d
  8. Replace with the following line
    user = root
  9. Save the edited file (sample)
  10. sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart
  11. http://localhost:8888

Q: How to change the default port number for GNUMP3d?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install GNUMP3d for Streaming Media Server service?
  3. e.g. Assumed that new port number is 7878
  4. sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf
  5. Find this line
    port = 8888
  6. Replace with the following line
    port = 7878
  7. Save the edited file (sample)
  8. sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart
  9. http://localhost:7878


Image Gallery Server


Q: How to install Gallery for Image Gallery Server service?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. Read How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?
  4. Read How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server?
  5. sudo apt-get install gallery (when prompted to restart Apache, choose No or Cancel)
    sudo apt-get install imagemagick
    sudo apt-get install jhead
    sudo apt-get install libjpeg-progs
    sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
    sudo sh /usr/share/gallery/configure.sh
  6. http://localhost/gallery/setup/index.php
  7. Gallery Configuration
    Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 1
    Next Step ->
    
    Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 2
    General settings Tab ->
    Admin password: Specify the password
    
    Locations and URLs Tab ->
    Album directory: /var/www/albums/
    Temporary directory: /tmp/
    Gallery URL: http://localhost/gallery
    Albums URL: http://localhost/albums
    Next Step -->
    
    Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 3
    Next Step -->
    
    Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 4
    Save Config ->
  8. http://localhost/gallery/albums.php

Q: How to configure Gallery to be accessible via Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Gallery for Image Gallery Server service?
  3. e.g. Assumed that network and internet connections have been configured properly
         Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP): http://www.url.com
  4. sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  5. Find this section
    ...
    $gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
    $gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
    ...
  6. Replace with the following lines
    $gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://www.url.com/gallery";
    $gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://www.url.com/albums";
  7. Save the edited file (sample)
  8. http://www.url.com/gallery/albums.php

Q: How to configure Gallery to be accessible via LAN (dynamic IP)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to install Gallery for Image Gallery Server service?
  3. e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
         LAN (dynamic IP): 192.168.0.1
  4. sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php
  5. Find this section
    ...
    $gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
    $gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
    ...
  6. Replace with the following lines
    $gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "/gallery";
    $gallery->app->albumDirURL = "/albums";
  7. Save the edited file (sample)
  8. http://192.168.0.1/gallery/albums.php

Q: How to backup/restore Gallery data?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. To backup Gallery data
    sudo tar zcvf gallery.tgz /var/www/albums/ /etc/gallery/
  3. To restore Gallery data
    sudo tar zxvf gallery.tgz -C /


Troubleshooting


Q: Configuring network interfaces... (taking too long to load)

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to temporary skip boot-up services?

Q: Synchronizing clock to ntp.ubuntulinux.org... (taking too long to load)

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to temporary skip boot-up services?
  3. Read How to permanently disable/enable boot-up services?
    service_name = ntpdate

Q: How to disable system time/date from being reset to UTC (GMT)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo cp /etc/default/rcS /etc/default/rcS_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/default/rcS
  3. Find this line
    ...
    UTC=yes
    ...
  4. Replace with the following line
    UTC=no
  5. Save the edited file (sample)
  6. System -> Administration -> Time and Date
    Set the correct time/date
  7. sudo /etc/init.d/hwclock.sh restart

Q: How to configure sound to work properly in GNOME?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Read How to add extra repositories?
  3. sudo killall esd
    sudo cp /etc/esound/esd.conf /etc/esound/esd.conf_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/esound/esd.conf
  4. Find this section
    ...
    auto_spawn=0
    spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 5
    ...
  5. Replace with the following lines
    auto_spawn=1
    spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 2 -d default
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. sudo apt-get install libesd-alsa0
    sudo gedit /etc/asound.conf
  8. Insert the following lines into the new file
    pcm.card0 {
    type hw
    card 0
    }
    
    pcm.!default {
    type plug
    slave.pcm "dmixer"
    }
    
    pcm.dmixer {
    type dmix
    ipc_key 1025
    slave {
    pcm "hw:0,0"
    period_time 0
    period_size 2048
    buffer_size 32768
    rate 48000
    }
    bindings {
    0 0
    1 1
    }
    }
  9. Save the edited file (sample)
  10. sudo ln -fs /usr/lib/libesd.so.0 /usr/lib/libesd.so.1
  11. System -> Preferences -> Sound
  12. Sound preferences
    General Tab -> Sounds for events (Un-Checked)
  13. Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

Q: How to forcefully empty Trash in GNOME?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo rm -fr $HOME/.Trash/

Q: How to remove duplicate menu/menu items in GNOME?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. rm -f $HOME/.config/menus/applications.menu
  3. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?

Q: How to refresh Places menu in GNOME (if mounts to /media/ in /etc/fstab does not show up)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. sudo /etc/init.d/dbus-1 restart


Upgrading Ubuntu


Q: How to upgrade from Hoary Hedgehog to Breezy Badger (experimental)?

  1. Read General Notes
  2. Warning! This is still in it's development stage. Only use it for experimental purposes
             Doing this might break your entire system
  3. sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
    sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  4. Find this section
    deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 5.04 _Hoary Hedgehog_ - Release i386 (20050407)]/ hoary main restricted
    
    
    ## Uncomment the following two lines to fetch updated software from the network
    # deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary main restricted
    # deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary main restricted
    
    ## Uncomment the following two lines to fetch major bug fix updates produced
    ## after the final release of the distribution.
    # deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-updates main restricted
    # deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-updates main restricted
    
    ## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'universe'
    ## repository.
    ## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
    ## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
    ## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
    ## universe WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu security
    ## team.
    # deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary universe
    # deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary universe
    
    # deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-security main restricted
    # deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-security main restricted
    
    # deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-security universe
    # deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-security universe
  5. Replace with the following lines
    #deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 5.04 _Hoary Hedgehog_ - Release i386 (20050407)]/ hoary main restricted
    
    
    ## Uncomment the following two lines to fetch updated software from the network
    deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy main restricted
    deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy main restricted
    
    ## Uncomment the following two lines to fetch major bug fix updates produced
    ## after the final release of the distribution.
    deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-updates main restricted
    deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-updates main restricted
    
    ## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'universe'
    ## repository.
    ## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
    ## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
    ## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
    ## universe WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu security
    ## team.
    deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy universe
    deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy universe
    
    deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-security main restricted
    deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-security main restricted
    
    deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-security universe
    deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-security universe
    
    deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy multiverse
    deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy multiverse
  6. Save the edited file (sample)
  7. sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  8. Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer


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