Java Programming Language
The Java Programming Language is a general-purpose, concurrent, strongly typed, class-based object-oriented language. It is normally compiled to the bytecode instruction set and binary format defined in the Java Virtual Machine Specification.
- Generics - This long-awaited enhancement to the type system allows a type or method to operate on objects of various types while providing compile-time type safety. It adds compile-time type safety to the Collections Framework and eliminates the drudgery of casting. See the Generics Tutorial. (JSR 14)
forLoop - This new language construct eliminates the drudgery and error-proneness of iterators and index variables when iterating over collections and arrays. (JSR 201)
- Autoboxing/Unboxing - This facility eliminates the drudgery of manual conversion between primitive types (such as int) and wrapper types (such as Integer). (JSR 201)
- Typesafe Enums - This flexible object-oriented enumerated type facility allows you to create enumerated types with arbitrary methods and fields. It provides all the benefits of the Typesafe Enum pattern ("Effective Java," Item 21) without the verbosity and the error-proneness. (JSR 201)
- Varargs - This facility eliminates the need for manually boxing up argument lists into an array when invoking methods that accept variable-length argument lists.
- Static Import - This facility lets you avoid qualifying static members with class names without the shortcomings of the "Constant Interface antipattern." (JSR 201)
- Annotations (Metadata) - This language feature lets you avoid writing boilerplate code under many circumstances by enabling tools to generate it from annotations in the source code. This leads to a "declarative" programming style where the programmer says what should be done and tools emit the code to do it. Also it eliminates the need for maintaining "side files" that must be kept up to date with changes in source files. Instead the information can be maintained in the source file. (JSR 175)
@Deprecatedannotation provides a way to deprecate program elements. See How and When To Deprecate APIs.
- JSR14: Adding Generic Types to the Java Programming Language
- Making the Future Safe for the Past: Adding Genericity to the Java Programming Language (PDF)
Bracha, Odersky, Stoutamire, and Wadler. OOPSLA 98, Vancouver, October 1998. (other formats)
- GJ: Extending the Java Programming Language with Type Parameters (PDF)
Bracha, Odersky, Stoutamire, and Wadler. A tutorial on GJ. August 1998. (other formats)
- Adding Generics to the Java Programming Language (PDF)
Bracha. Slides from JavaOne 2003 presentation.
- Adding Wildcards to the Java Programming Language (PDF)
Torgersen, Hansen, Ernst, Ahe, Bracha and Gafter. An ACM paper, 2004.
- Assertion Facility - Assertions are boolean expressions that the programmer believes to be true concerning the state of a computer program. For example, after sorting a list, the programmer might assert that the list is in ascending order. Evaluating assertions at runtime to confirm their validity is one of the most powerful tools for improving code quality, as it quickly uncovers the programmer's misconceptions concerning a program's behavior.