Joseph Mack

jmack (at) wm7d (dot) net

v2007.03 Mar 2007, released under GPL.


Install, testing and running of a Linux Virtual Server with 2.2.x, 2.4.x, 2.6.x kernels

search the LVS documentation

Table of Contents

1. LVS: Introduction
1.1. Thanks
1.2. About the HOWTO
1.3. Nomenclature/Abbreviations
1.4. Minimal knowledge required
1.5. Getting Technical Help
1.6. After you've Got Technical Help
1.7. Mailing list: subscribing, unsubscribing, searching
1.8. Mailing list: posting to
1.9. Bug Fixes
1.10. Other load balancing solutions, GPL, opensource and commercial
1.11. Books on LVS
1.12. LVS in the news
1.13. Software/Information/HOWTOs useful/related to LVS
2. What is an LVS? Can I use an LVS?
2.1. What is a VIP?
2.2. Where do you use an LVS?
2.3. Client/Server relationship is preserved in an LVS
2.4. LVS director is an L4 switch
2.5. LVS forwards packets to realservers
2.6. LVS runs on Linux and FreeBSD directors
2.7. Code for LVS is different for each kernel series
2.8. kernels from 2.4.x series are SMP for kernel code
2.9. OS for realservers
2.10. LVS works on ethernet
2.11. LVS works on IPv6
2.12. LVS is continually being developed
2.13. LVS is 64 bit
2.14. Other documentation
2.15. LVS is not simple to install, get going or keep running
2.16. LVS Control (Failure, Thundering Herd, Sorry Servers)
3. LVS: Install, Configure, Setup
3.1. Installing from Source Code
3.2. Ultra Monkey
3.3. Keepalived
3.4. Alternate hardware: Soekris (and embedded hardware)
3.5. LVS on a CD: Malcolm Turnbull's ISO files
4. LVS: Ipvsadm and Schedulers
4.1. Using ipvsadm
4.2. Memory Requirements
4.3. sysctl documentation
4.4. Compile a version of ipvsadm that matches your ipvs
4.5. put realservers in /etc/hosts
4.6. RR and LC schedulers
4.7. Netmask for VIP
4.8. LBLC, DH schedulers
4.9. LVS with mark tracking: fwmark patches for multiple firewalls/gateways
4.10. SH scheduler
4.11. What is an ActiveConn/InActConn (Active/Inactive) connnection?
4.12. FAQ: ipvsadm shows entries in InActConn, but none in ActiveConn, connection hangs. What's wrong?
4.13. FAQ: initial connection is delayed, but once connected everything is fine. What's wrong?
4.14. unbalanced realservers: does rr and lc weighting equally distribute the load? - clients reusing ports
4.15. Changing weights with ipvsadm
4.16. Dynamically changing realserver weights
4.17. feedbackd
4.18. lvs-kiss
4.19. connection threshold
4.20. Flushing connection table
4.21. Thundering herd problem, Slow start code for realserver(s) coming on line
4.22. Handling kernel version dependant files e.g. and ipvsadm
4.23. Limiting number of clients connecting to LVS
4.24. Who is connecting to my LVS?
4.25. experimental scheduling code
4.26. Ratz's primer on writing your own scheduler
4.27. Julian's One Packet Scheduler (for UDP)
4.28. changing ip_vs behaviour with sysctl flags in /proc
4.29. Counters in ipvsadm
4.30. Exact Counters
4.31. Scheduling TCP/UDP/SCTP/TCP splicing/
4.32. patch: machine readable error codes from ipvsadm
4.33. patch: stateless ipsvadm - add/edit patch
4.34. patch: fwmark name-number translation table
4.36. Luca's php monitoring script
4.37. ipvsadm set option
4.38. ipvsadm error messages
5.1. Introduction
5.2. LVS-NAT bugs
5.3. Example 1-NIC, 2 Network LVS-NAT (VIP and RIPs on different network)
5.4. All packets sent from the LVS-NAT realserver to the client must go through the LVS-NAT director
5.5. Run the configure script
5.6. Setting up demasquerading on the director; 2.4.x and 2.2.x
5.7. rewriting, re-mapping, translating ports with LVS-NAT
5.8. masquerade timeouts
5.9. Julian's step-by-step check of a L4 LVS-NAT setup
5.10. How LVS-NAT works
5.11. In LVS-NAT, how do packets get back to the client, or how does the director choose the VIP as the source_address for the outgoing packets?
5.12. One Network LVS-NAT
5.13. re-mapping ports, rewriting is slow for 2.0, 2.2 kernels
5.14. Two instances of demon running on realserver
5.15. Performance of LVS-NAT
5.16. Various debugging techniques for routes
5.17. Connecting directly from the client to a service:port on an LVS-NAT realserver
5.18. Masquerading clients on LVS-NAT realservers to the outside world
5.19. Realserver as client in LVS-NAT
5.20. A NAT router has no connections
5.21. Thoughts on extending NAT
5.22. Postings from the mailing list
5.23. LVS-NAT source routing patch (Brownfield, Sawari and Black)
5.24. LVS-NAT FTP Recipe
5.25. LVS-NAT vhosts with apache
5.26. F5 style SNAT
6. LVS: The ARP Problem
6.1. The problem
6.2. Put the VIP on the realservers lo device
6.3. The Cure(s)
6.4. The Cure: 2.0 kernels - nothing needed
6.5. The Cure: 2.2.x kernels - many options
6.6. The Cure: 2.4.x kernels - arp_ignore/arp_announce
6.7. The Cure: 2.6.x kernels - arp_ignore/arp_announce
6.8. arptables
6.9. The arp problem is on the realserver's VIP not the RIP
6.10. Testing an interface for replies to arp requests
6.11. Normal machines, Solaris
6.12. problems with switches
6.13. The ARP problem, the first inklings
6.14. A posting to the mailinglist by Peter Kese explaining the "arp problem"
6.15. arp bouncing
6.16. Lar's Method
6.17. Static Routing to Director
6.18. iproute2 arp on|off flag
6.19. Is the arp behaviour of 2.2.x kernel a bug?
6.20. The device doesn't reply to arp requests, the kernel does.
6.21. Properties of devices for the VIP
6.22. Topologies for LVS-DR and LVS-Tun LVS's
6.23. Why do all devices broadcast the arp replies
6.24. A discussion about the arp problem
6.25. ATM/ethernet and router problems
6.26. Same IP on multiple NICs
7.1. LVS-DR example
7.2. How LVS-DR works
7.3. Handling the arp problem for LVS-DR
7.4. LVS-DR scales well
7.5. LVS-DR director as default gw for realservers, transparent proxy and Julian's martian and forward_shared patches
7.6. Accepting packets on LVS-DR director by fwmarks
7.7. security concerns: default gw(s) and routing with LVS-DR/LVS-Tun
7.8. routing to realserver from director
7.9. LVS-DR, LVS-Tun need rp_filter=0
7.10. Director as client in LVS-DR
7.11. Realserver as client in LVS-DR
7.12. from the mailing list
7.13. rewriting, re-mapping, translating ports with LVS-DR
8. LVS-Tun
8.1. LVS-Tun Intro
8.2. LVS-Tun example setup
8.3. You need a tunl0 device
8.4. the ARP problem with LVS-Tun
8.5. Reply packets appear to be spoofed
8.6. How LVS-Tun works
8.7. The RIP (not the tunl device) receives the ipip packet
8.8. Configure LVS-Tun
8.9. set rp_filter correctly
8.10. FreeBSD realservers with LVS-Tun
8.11. Windows realservers with LVS-Tun
8.12. Realservers without ipip encapsulation
8.13. packets bigger than MTU need fragmentation
8.14. MTU: early signs of problems
8.15. tunl mtu solved: Setting the MTU by MSS with iptables on the realserver
8.16. Setting the MTU by route
8.17. rewriting, re-mapping, translating ports with LVS-Tun
9. LVS: LocalNode
9.1. Two Box LVS
9.2. Testing LocalNode
9.3. Localnode on the backup director
9.4. rewriting, re-mapping, translating ports with Localnode
9.5. One Box LVS
10. LVS: You can't map (or rewrite) ports with LVS-DR, LVS-Tun or localnode (but you can with iptables)
10.1. You can't rewrite ports with localnode (but you can with iptables)
10.2. rewriting, re-mapping, translating ports with iptables in LVS-DR
10.3. can't port map with LVS
11. LVS: Clients on Realservers
11.1. always NAT out clients through VIP
11.2. Masquerading clients on realservers to the outside world (SNAT)
11.3. Masquerading clients on LVS-NAT realservers
11.4. Masquerading clients on LVS-DR realservers
11.5. Masquerading clients on LVS-Tun realservers
11.6. Masquerading clients through the VIP on the director
11.7. 3-Tier LVS
11.8. Routes needed for 3-Tier LVS
11.9. Setting up routes using iptables and iproute2
11.10. from the mailing list
11.11. What is authd/identd?
11.12. authd/identd and other 3-Tier clients
11.13. symptoms of the identd problem
11.14. FAQ on identd
11.15. Russ Nelson on identd
11.16. Why identd is a problem for LVS
11.17. tcpdumps of connections delayed by identd
11.18. There are solutions to identd problem in some cases
11.19. Turn off tcpwrappers
11.20. Identd and smtp/pop/qmail
12. LVS-J: Ludo's reinJect Forwarder: using the director as a gateway to load balance connections to the internet
12.1. Introduction
12.2. reinJect setup with ipvsadm
12.3. The target LVS: sending packets with dst_addr=0/0 to ip_vs
12.4. setting up LVS-J forwarding
12.5. SNAT'ing the output
12.6. LVS-J discussion by Ludo
13. LVS: Services: general, setup, debugging new services
13.1. Single port services are simple
13.2. setting up a (new) service
13.3. services must be setup for forwarding type
13.4. Realservers present the same content: Synchronising (filesharing) content and config files, backing up realservers
13.5. cfengine for synchronising files
13.6. File Systems for (really big) Clusters: Lustre, Panasas
13.7. File Systems for Clusters: Samba waits for a commit and is slow, NFS fills buffers and is fast
13.8. Discussion on distributed filesystems
13.9. load balancing and scheduling based on the content of the packet: Cookies, URL, file requested, session headers
13.10. Idle timeouts for TCP/UDP connections to services
13.11. name resolution on realservers: running name resolution friendly demons on realservers
13.12. Debugging new services
13.13. "broken" services:servlets and j2ee
13.14. http logs, error logs
14. LVS: Services: single-port
14.1. ftp, tcp 21
14.2. ssh, sftp, scp, tcp 22
14.3. telnet, tcp 23
14.4. smtp, tcp 25; pop3, tcp 110; imap tcp/udp 143 (imap2), 220(imap3). Also sendmail, qmail, postfix, and mailfarms.
14.5. Mail Farms
14.6. dns, tcp/udp 53 (and dhcpd server 67, dhcp client 68)
14.7. http name and IP-based (with LVS-DR or LVS-Tun), tcp 80
14.8. http with LVS-NAT
14.9. httpd is stateless and normally closes connections
14.10. netscape/database/tcpip persistence (keepalives)
14.11. dynamically generated images on web pages
14.12. http: sanity checks, shutting down, indexing programs, htpasswd, apache proxy and reverse proxy to look at URL, mod_backhand
14.13. HTTP 1.0 and 1.1 requests
14.14. Large HTTP /POST with LVS-Tun
14.15. Microsoft http clients and servers violate the RFC for TCP/IP
14.16. http keepalive - effect on InActConn
14.17. Testing http with apachebench (ab)
14.18. Apache setup for DoS
14.19. squids, tcp 80, 3128
14.20. authd/identd, tcp 113 and tcpwrappers (tcpd)
14.21. ntp, udp 123
14.22. https, tcp 443
14.23. name based virtual hosts for https
14.24. Obtaining certificates for https
14.25. Self made certificates
14.26. SSL Accelerators and Load Balancers
14.27. r commands; rsh, rcpi (and their ssh replacements), tcp 514
14.28. lpd, tcp 515
14.29. Databases
14.30. Databases: mysql
14.31. Using Zope with databases
14.32. Databases: Microsoft SQL server, tcp 1433
14.33. Databases: Oracle
14.34. nfs, udp 2049 (and possible replacements for nfs)
15. LVS: Services: multi-port
15.1. Introduction
15.2. ftp general, active tcp 20,21; passive 21,high_port
15.3. ftp helper modules: ip_vs_ftp/ip_masq_ftp
15.4. ftp (active) - the classic command line ftp
15.5. ftp (passive)
15.6. ftp helper bug(s)
15.7. ftp is difficult to secure
15.8. ftps (ssl based ftp), tcp 21, 22?
15.9. dns, tcp/udp 53 (and dhcpd server 67, dhcp client 68)
15.10. samba, udp 137, udp 138, tcp 139, tcp 445
15.11. xdmcp, X-window, udp 177 (xdmcp), tcp 6000 (and ssh X-forwarding)
15.12. r commands; rsh, rcp, and their ssh replacements, tcp 513 (,514) and another connection
15.13. Streaming Media: RealNetworks, Quicktime, Windows Media Server, tcp/udp 554 (and other ports)
15.14. Radius, udp 1645,1646
16. LVS: Services that we haven't got to work with LVS yet
16.1. SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)
16.2. Kerberos
16.3. ldap
16.4. RMI
17. LVS: Routing and packet delivery to a director without a VIP (for fwmark and transparent proxy)
17.1. Introduction
17.2. Routing to and accepting packets by a VIP-less director
17.3. Routing to the MAC address of the director
17.4. Julian's iproute2 solutions
17.5. Ludos LVS target in iptables
17.6. Transparent proxy Q and A
17.7. Other tricks
18. LVS: Fwmarks (firewall marks)
18.1. Introduction
18.2. ipvsadm syntax for fwmark
18.3. setting up routing and packet delivery to the director
18.4. single-port service: telnet with fwmarks
18.5. Grouping services: single group, active ftp(20,21)
18.6. Grouping services: two groups, active ftp(20,21) and e-commerce(80,443)
18.7. passive ftp
18.8. fwmark with LVS-NAT
18.9. collisions between fwmark and VIP rules
18.10. persistence granularity with fwmark
18.11. fwmark allows LVS-DR director to be default gw for realservers
18.12. fwmark simplifies configuration for large numbers of addresses
18.13. Example: firewall farm
18.14. Example: LVS'ing a CIDR block
18.15. Example: forwarding based on client source IP
18.16. Example: load balancing multiple class C networks
18.17. Example: proxy server
18.18. Example: transparent web cache
18.19. Example: Multiply-connected router
18.20. httpd clients (browsers)
18.21. Example: dynamically generated images in webpages
18.22. Example: Balancing many IPs/services as one block
18.23. Example: Source controlled LVS - services and realserver customised by Client IP
18.24. Appendix 1: Specificiations for grouping of services with fwmarks
18.25. Appendix 2: Demonstration of grouping services with fwmarks
18.26. Appendix 3: Announcement of grouping services with fwmarks
18.27. fwmark examples from the mailing list
19. LVS: Transparent proxy (TP or Horms' method)
19.1. setting up routing and packet delivery to the director
19.2. General
19.3. How you use TP
19.4. The original 2.2 TP setup method
19.5. Transparent proxy for 2.4.x (and presumably 2.6.x)
19.6. Experiments showing that 2.4TP is different to 2.2TP
19.7. What IP TP packets arriving on?
19.8. Take home lesson for setting up TP on realservers
19.9. Handling identd requests from 2.4.x LVS-DR realservers using TP
19.10. Performance of Transparent Proxy
19.11. The difference between REDIRECT and TPROXY
20. LVS: Transparent Bridging
21. LVS: Persistent Connection (Persistence, Affinity in cisco-speak)
21.1. LVS persistence
21.2. Single Session
21.3. Scheduling looks different under persistence
21.4. Persistent and regular (non-persistent) services together on the same realserver.
21.5. Tracing connections: where will the client connect next?
21.6. Bringing down persistent services.
21.7. Forcing a break in a persistent connection: Horms code (Nov 2004) for quiescing persistent connections
21.8. what if a realserver holding a persistent (sticky) connection crashes
21.9. Load Balancing time constant is longer with persistence
21.10. The tcp NONE flag
21.11. Resetting the persistence timeout counter (persistence behaviour for short timeout values)
21.12. Why you don't want persistence for your e-commerce site: why you should rewrite your application
21.13. more about e-commerce sites: we used to think memory was the problem - it isn't
21.14. persistence with windows realservers
21.15. IIS session management: how it works
21.16. messing with the ipvsadm table while your LVS is running
21.17. Persistence for multiport services
21.18. Proxy services, e.g. AOL
21.19. key exchanges (SSL)
21.20. About longer timeouts
21.21. passive ftp and persistence
21.22. The Persistence Template (about port 0)
21.23. persistent clients behind a proxy or nat box
21.24. Rogue clients hidden by persistence
21.25. Long (1 day) persistence to windows terminal servers
22. LVS: Running a firewall on the director: Interaction between LVS and netfilter (iptables).
22.1. Introduction
22.2. Path of an ip_vs controlled packet
22.3. how to filter with netfilter
22.4. ipvs_nfct, netfilter connection tracking for ipvs
22.5. LVS-NAT netfilter conntrack example with ftp
22.6. tcpdump is LVS compatible
22.7. Writing Filter Rules
22.8. The Antefacto Netfilter Connection Tracking patches
22.9. The design of LVS as a netfilter module, pt1
22.10. The design of LVS for Netfilter and Linux 2.4, pt2
22.11. Example ip_tables filter scripts
22.12. performance hit on director with iptables/netfilter
23. LVS: Cluster friendly versions of applications that need to maintain state
23.1. rewriting your application/service
23.2. Session Data, maintaining state in a cluster, from Andreas Koening
23.3. Maintaining state with persistence
23.4. How others maintain state
24. LVS: Squid Realservers (poor man's L7 switch)
24.1. Terminology
24.2. Preview
24.3. Let's start assembling
24.4. One squid
24.5. Another squid
24.6. Combining pieces with LVS
24.7. Problems
25. LVS: Performance and Kernel Tuning
25.1. Performance Articles
25.2. Estimating throughput: 100Mbps FE is really 8000packets/sec ethernet
25.3. Jumbo frames
25.4. Network Latency
25.5. Mixture of 100Mbps and GigE ethernet
25.6. NICs and Switches, 100Mbps (FE) and 1Gbps (GigE)
25.7. NIC bonding
25.8. NIC problems - eepro100
25.9. NIC problems - tulip
25.10. dual/quad ethernet cards, IRQ sharing problems
25.11. Flakey Switch
25.12. performance testing tools
25.13. Max number of realservers
25.14. FAQ: What is the minimum hardware requirements for a director
25.15. FAQ: How fast/big should my director be?
25.16. SMP doesn't help
25.17. Performance Hints from the Squid people
25.18. Conntrack, effect on throughput
25.19. Don't use the preemptible/preemptable/preemptive kernels
25.20. 9.6Gbps served using LVS-DR with gridftp
26. LVS: Monitoring
26.1. CPU usage/load level on the director?
26.2. LVS throughput at the director with ipvsadm
26.3. Monitoring: LVS director throughput statistics from the /proc system (originally /proc/net/ip_vs_stats)
26.4. MRTG family: Intro
26.5. MRTG family: LVSGSP
26.6. MRTG
26.7. MRTG family: RRDtool
26.8. MRTG family: cacti
26.9. MRTG family: Ganglia (incl. INSTALL)
26.10. MRTG family: rrd images
26.11. Nagios
26.12. MIB/SNMP
26.13. home brew MIB/SNMP
26.14. Disks
26.15. Other output GUIs
27. LVS: Details of LVS operation, Security, DoS
27.1. Top 20 security vunerabilities
27.2. Top 75 security tools from the people at nmap
27.3. Network Testing with Abberant Packets
27.4. Do I need security, really?
27.5. What to do after a break-in, prevention strategies
27.6. More about syncookies
27.7. Can filter rules stop the intruder hopping to other machines?
27.8. Where filter rules act
27.9. /proc filesystem flags for ipv4, e.g.rp_filter
27.10. tcp timeout values, don't change them (at least yet)
27.11. /proc file system settings for LVS: security and private copies of tcp timeouts for LVS connections (you can change these)
27.12. timeouts the same for all services
27.13. Director Connection Hash Table
27.14. Hash table connection timeouts
27.15. Hash Table DoS
27.16. Hash table size, director will crash when it runs out of memory.
27.17. The LVS code does not swap
27.18. Other factors determining the number of connections
27.19. Port range: limitations, expanding port range on directors
27.20. Director does not have any ports (connections) open for an LVS connection
27.21. apps starved for ports
27.22. realserver running out of ports
27.23. Maximum number of NICs
27.24. DoS
27.25. DoS, from the mailing list
27.26. Testing DoS Strategies with testlvs: Creating large numbers of InActConn
27.27. Debugging LVS
27.28. realserver content: filesystem or database? (the many reader, single writer problem)
27.29. Developement: Supporting IPSec on LVS
28.1. MTU discovery and ICMP handling
28.2. LVS code only needs to handle icmp redirects for LVS-NAT and not for LVS-DR and LVS-Tun
28.3. ICMP checksum errors
28.4. ICMP Timeouts
28.5. PMTUD (path MTU discovery)
28.6. icmp responses aren't generated by VIP-less directors
29. LVS: High Availability, Failover protection
29.1. Introduction
29.2. Single Point of Failure (SPOF) - you can't protect against everything
29.3. Stateful Failover
29.4. Director failure
29.5. UltraMonkey and Linux-HA
29.6. Keepalived and Vrrpd
29.7. monitoring/failover messages should stay internal to LVS
29.8. Parsing problems with vrrpd config file
29.9. Two instances of vrrpd
29.10. HA MySQL
29.11. Failover of large numbers (say 1024) of VIPs
29.12. Some vrrpd setup instructions
29.13. Filter rules for vrrpd broadcasts
29.14. Vinnie's comparison between ldirectord/heartbeat and keepalived/vrrpd
29.15. Saru: All directors active at the same time
29.16. Server Load Balancing Registration Protocol
29.17. using iproute2 to keep demons running during failover, while link is down
30. LVS: Dynamic Routing, multiple gateways, realservers in multiple LVSs, dead gateway detection
30.1. Setting up multiple gateways: Realservers shared between two LVSs: ip route append
30.2. Connecting from clients through multiple parallel links: the dead gateway problem
30.3. Dynamic Routing to handle loss of routing in directors
30.4. Dynamic routing with gated: An LVS that connects to the outside world through two networks
30.5. flapping stemming from convergence time for spanning tree
31. LVS: Server State Sync Demon, syncd (saving the director's connection state on failover)
31.1. Intro
31.2. Release Notice
31.3. Expiry of Connection in Backup Director
31.4. LVS and syncd do not use conntrack
31.5. Connection Synchronisation (TCP Fail-Over)
31.6. The synchd produces broadcast traffic
31.7. from the mailing list
31.8. Bug (fixed) in syncd: mixed endianness on directors
32. LVS: Realserver failure handled by Mon
32.1. Introduction
32.2. ethernet NIC failure, and channel bonding
32.3. Service/realserver failout: mon, ldirectord
32.4. Mon for server/service failout
32.5. Monitoring the service running on the VIP on the realserver from the director
32.6. About Mon
32.7. Mon Install
32.8. Mon Configure
32.9. Testing mon without LVS
32.10. Can virtualserver.alert send commands to LVS?
32.11. Running mon with LVS
32.12. Why is the LVS monitored for failures/load by an external agent rather than by the kernel?
32.13. Running multiple directors (each with their own IP)
32.14. Mon scripts from Christopher DeMarco
33. LVS: Setting up Linux-HA for directors (mostly by using rpms)
33.1. linux-ha howto
33.2. Fix the (possible) ethernet alias issue.
33.3. Configure /etc/ha.d/. files.
33.4. Stop ldirectord from starting, ensure heartbeat starts on reboot
33.5. starting heartbeat and verifying functionality
33.6. Test your fail-over features, understand HA.
33.7. Configuration of mon - recommended
34. LVS: Director failover using heartbeat
34.1. Introduction
34.2. On using serial and ethernet connections for heartbeat
34.3. Ard van Breeman's replacement for IPaddr using ip and arping
35. LVS: Running LVS under UML (User Mode Linux), by Brett Elliot
35.1. Introduction
35.2. Ethernet bridging
35.3. Putting it all together: UML + LVS examples (not finished)
36. LVS: Newer networking tools: Policy Routing
36.1. Introduction
36.2. Policy Routing and ifconfig
36.3. Various debugging techniques for routes
36.4. checking source routed packets
36.5. handling arp problem with iproute2
36.6. ip commands you mightn't know about
36.7. Ratz's corrections on common iproute2 missconceptions
36.8. Ratz's wrappers (for iproute2)
37. LVS: Weird hardware (and software)
37.1. Arp caching defeats Heartbeat switchover
37.2. Weird Software I: IE client
37.3. Weird Hardware I: cisco catalyst routers gratuitously cache arp data (failover is slow)
37.4. Weird Hardware II: autonegotiation failure on cisco CSS 11050
37.5. Weird Hardware III: Watchguard firewall at client site
37.6. Weird Hardware IV: wrong device gets MAC address
37.7. Weird Hardware V: SonicWAll firewall rewriting sequence numbers
37.8. Weird Hardware VI: cisco 2924XL switch
37.9. Weird Hardware VII: unknown switches don't defragment
38. LVS: Misc/FAQ/Wisdom from the mailing list
38.1. Having one director handling multiple LVS sites, Multiple VIPs
38.2. Setting up a fake service on the realserver with inetd
38.3. How to bring down a realserver for maintenance (eg swap disks)
38.4. temporarily removing a realserver from view of keepalived
38.5. Howto turn your single node ftp/http server into an LVS without taking it off-line
38.6. shutdown of LVS
38.7. Other projects like LVS - Beowulf
38.8. Projects like LVS - Eddie
38.9. Recommendations for a redundant file system, RAID
38.10. on the need for extended testing
38.11. Bringing down aliased devices
38.12. Multiple IPs on the Director
38.13. Testimonials
38.14. Transport Layer Security(TLS)
38.15. Setting up a hot spare server
38.16. An LVS of LVSs
38.17. LVS on a Linux/IBM mainframe
38.18. Running a test LVS (director, backup director and realservers) on one box (UML, VMWare)
38.19. VMWare problems with ntp
38.20. mqseries
38.21. LVS log files
38.22. LVS and linux vlan
38.23. multi-home, multi-router LVS
38.24. Horror story, mostly from slow file system with disk intensive application
38.25. RTNETLINK answers:
38.26. LVS chokes on 600+ connections
39. LVS: L7 Switching
39.1. Introduction
39.2. KTCPVS
39.3. DRWS
39.4. Alexandre's (unamed) L7 code
39.5. from the mailing list about L7 switching
39.6. What is TCPSP?
40. LVS: Geographically distributed load balancing
40.1. Super Sparrow
40.2. sharing/separate routers
40.3. Other uses of BGP4 with LVS
40.4. Geographically remote nodes connected by Bridging
40.5. Load Balancing by DNS (round robin DNS)
40.6. BIND, BGP with load balancing (more ideas from Horms)
40.7. Commercial Geographically Distributed Servers
40.8. from the mailing list
41. LVS: Linux Distributions prepatched with LVS, Unsupported LVS addons
41.1. Distributions prepatched with LVS
41.2. PB's Nutshell HOWTO for Piranha/LVS-NAT
41.3. Horms advice for installing on RedHat systems
41.4. Recipe and LVS binaries for RedHat from Alex Kramarov
41.5. recipes for installing with RedHat from the mailing list
41.6. Hidden RPMs
42. LVS: Useful things that have no other place
42.1. Ramdisk
42.2. cscope
42.3. Neutral currents in multiphase power lines with non-linear loads (like computers with switching power supplies)
42.4. netcat/phatcat
43. LVS: FAQ
43.1. When will LVS be ported to Solaris, xxxBSD...?
43.2. Is there a HOWTO in Japanese, French, Italian, Mandarin...?